tam tathaa krupayaavisht`am
vishiidam tam idam vaakyam
kutas tvaa kas`malam idam vishamee samupasthitam
anaaryajusht`am asvargyam akiirtikaram arjuna
Klaibyam maa sma gama: paartha naitat tvaii upapadyatee
kshudram hrudaya daurbalyam tyaktvoottisht`ha paramtapa
katham bhiishmam aham samkhyee droon`am ca madhusuudana
ishubhi: pratiyootsyaami puujaarhaav arisuudana
guruun ahatvaa hi mahaanubhaavaam; s`reeyoo bhooktum bhaiksham apiiha lookee
hatvaarthakaamaams tu guruun ihaiva; bhumjiiya bhoogaan rudhirapradigdhaan
na ca itad vidma: kataran noo gariiyoo; yad vaa jayeema yadi vaa noo jayeeyu:
yaan eeva hatvaa na jijiivishaamas; tee avasthitaa: pramukhee dhaartaraasht`raa:
kaarpan`yadooshoopahatasvabhaava:; pruchchhaami tvaam dharmasammuud`hacheetaa:
yach chhreeya: syaan nis`chitam bruuhi tan mee; s`ishyas tee aham s`aadhi maam tvaam prapannam
na hi prapas`yaami mamaapanudyaad; yach chhookam uchchhooshan`am indriyaan`aam
avaapya bhuumaav asapatnam ruddham; raajyam suraan`aam api ca adhipatyam
eevam uktvaa hrushiikees`am
na yootsya iti goovimdam
uktvaa tuushn`iim babhuuva ha
tam uvaacha hrushiikees`a: prahasann iva bhaarata
seenayoor ubhayoor madhyee vishiidamtam idam vacha:
A was full of compassion. His eyes were inundated with tears. He was sad. (Path of Soul SOUL 1).
Krishna: ' Where did you get this temptation which is unbecoming of Aryans, hinders entry to heaven, generates ill-fame, that too at this critical moment when fighting is crucial. (SOUL 2).
This timidness does not befit you. Shed this base faint-heartedness and rise up to fight. (SOUL 3).
Arjuna: 'How can I release my arrows against the venerable Bhiishma and Droon`a? (SOUL 4). It will be better to live in this world by begging, rather than killing one's own preceptors. If I kill my teachers, I can enjoy blood-stained, wealth-desire filled luxuries, in this world. (SOUL 5).
I am unable to identify the better of winning and losing. This is because, by killing whom (Sons of Dhrutaraashtra) I do not want to live, they are very much before us, ready for a war. (SOUL 6). This wretchedness has hurt my character. I am unable to distinguish between what is right and wrong. In this condition, I beseech you to tell me for my guidance, what is absolutely certain and beneficial to me. I am your disciple. Direct me, govern me. (SOUL 7).
In spite of getting an enemy free and prosperous kingdom, the captainancy of even the Gods of Heaven, I am unable to identify the cure for my misery which is depressing my senses. (SOUL 8).
(Sanjaya's narration to Dhrutaraashtra continues): Arjuna having bared out his heart thus before Krishna declined to fight and remained 'mum'. (SOUL 9).
Now, Krishna spoke, as if he was ridiculing the sad Arjuna who stood paralysed between the two forces. (SOUL 10).
(Comment: This portion of Chapter ought to have been kept in Chapter 1 because it indicates the gyrating condition of Arjuna. Krishna starts his preaching from SOUL 11.
as`oochyaan anvas`oochas tvam pragnaa vaadaams` ca bhaashasee
gataasuun agataasuums` ca na anus`oochamti pamd`itaa:
na tv eevaaham jaatu naasam na tvam neemee janaadhipaa:
na ca iva na bhavishyaama: sarvee vayam ata: param
deehinoo asmin yathaa deehee kaumaaram yauvanam jaraa
tathaa deehaamtarapraaptir dhiiras tatra na muhyati
maatraaspars`aas tu kaumteeya s`iitooshn`asukhadu:khadaa:
aagamaapaaiinoo anityaas taams titikshasva bhaarata
yam hi na vyathayamti eetee purusham purusharshabha
samadu:khasukham dhiiram soo amrutatvaaya kalpatee
naasatoo vidyatee bhaavoo naabhaavoo vidyatee sata:
ubhayoor api drusht`oo amtas tv anayoos tatvadars`ibhi:
avinaas`i tu tad viddhi yeena sarvam idam tatam
vinaas`am avyayasyaasya na kas` chit kartum arhati
amtavamta imee deehaa nityasyooktaa: s`ariirin`a:
tasmaad yudhyasva bhaarata
ya eenam veetti hamtaaram yas` ca inam manyatee hatam
ubhau tau na vijaaniitoo naayam hamti na hanyatee
na jaayatee mriyatee vaa kadaa chin;
naayam bhuutvaa bhavitaa vaa na bhuuya:
ajoo nitya: s`aas`vatoo ayam puraan`oo;
na hanyatee hanyamaanee s`ariiree
veedaa vinaas`inam nityam ya eenam ajam avyayam
katham sa purusha: paartha kam ghaatayati hamti kam
vaasaamsi jiirn`aani yathaa vihaaya; navaani gruhn`aati naroo aparaan`i
tathaa s`ariiraan`i vihaaya jiirn`aani; anyaani samyaati navaani deehii
nainam chhindamti s`astraan`I
nainam dahati paavaka:
na ca inam kleedayamti aapoo
na s`ooshayati maaruta:
as`ooshya eeva ca
sthaan`ur achaloo ayam sanaatana:
avyaktoo ayam achimtyoo ayam avikaaryoo ayam uchyatee
tasmaad eevam viditvainam naanus`oochitum arhasi
atha ca inam nityajaatam nityam vaa manyasee mrutam
tathaapi tvam mahaa baahoo nainam s`oochitum arhasi
jaatasya hi dhruvoo mrutyur dhruvam janma mrutasya ca
tasmaad aparihaaryee arthee na tvam s`oochitum arhasi
avyaktaadiini bhuutaani vyaktamadhyaani bhaarata
avyaktanidhanaani eeva tatra kaa parideevanaa
aas`charyavat pas`yati kas` chid eenam; aas`charyavad vadati tathaiva ca anya:
aas`charyavach ca inam anya: s`run`ooti; s`rutvaapi eenam veeda na ca iva kas` chit
deehii nityam avadhyoo ayam deehee sarvasya bhaarata
tasmaat sarvaan`i bhuutaani na tvam s`oochitum arhasi
svadharmam api ca aveekshya na vikampitum arhasi
dharmyaad dhi yuddhaach chhreeyoo anyat kshatriyasya na vidyatee
yadruchchhayaa choopapannam svargadvaaram apaavrutam
sukhina: kshatriyaa: paartha labhamtee yuddham iidrus`am
atha cheet tvam imam dharmyam samgraamam na karishyasi
tata: svadharmam kiirtim ca hitvaa paapam avaapsyasi
akiirtim ca api bhuutaani kathaiishyamti tee avyayaam
sambhaavitasya ca akiirtir maran`aad atirichyatee
bhayaad ran`aad uparatam mamsyamtee tvaam mahaarathaa:
yeeshaam ca tvam bahumatoo bhuutvaa yaasyasi laaghavam
avaachyavaadaams` ca bahuun vadishyamti tavaahitaa:
nindamtas tava saamarthyam tatoo du:khataram nu kim
hatoo vaa praapsyasi svargam jitvaa vaa bhookshyasee mahiim
tasmaad uttisht`ha kaumteeya yuddhaaya krutanis`chaya:
sukhadu:khee samee krutvaa laabhaalaabhau jayaajayau
tatoo yuddhaaya yujyasva naivam paapam avaapsyasi
eeshaa tee abhihitaa saamkhyee buddhir yoogee tv imaam s`run`u
buddhyaa yuktoo yayaa paartha karmabandham prahaasyasi
Arjuna moves his lips only in the first Verse of Chapter 3 PATH OF ACTION.)
Krishna: 'You are regreting about those who do not deserve sympathies. You are speaking like an expert. But scholars do not regret about living or dead persons. (SOUL 11).
It is not correct to say that I was not alive at any time. Not correct to say that you and these kings were not alive. Not correct to say that all of us will not exist in future. We existed in the past, exist now and shall exist in future. (This is because the Human Soul and the Supreme Spirit are eternal). (SOUL 12).
Every soul which has body will have the accompanying infancy, adolescence, youth, old age and destruction of body at the end. The soul will move to its next body. A wise person will not therefore be tempted by the various stages of this body. (SOUL 13).
This body and the senses, just by touch give us the pleasures and pains of heat and cold. These are purely temporary-- they come, they go and are ephemeral. Bear them with endurance. (SOUL 14).
The one who does not experience the pleasure or pain is a master. Such maestro entitles himself to deliverance and immortality. (SOUL 15).
This evil (body) has no permanence. The divine (soul) has no destruction and non-existence. Philosophic visionaries can see the clear distinction between the two. (SOUL 16).
What is manifest in the entire body (soul), it is indestructible. Nobody can annihilate the infinite soul. (SOUL 17). The eternal, indestructible, infinite soul has an ephemeral body. Hence, O Arjuna!, please fight. (SOUL 18).
Those who think that this soul destroys something else and those who think that this soul is destroyed by somebody, both become ignorant. The soul neither kills nor is killed. (SOUL 19).
The soul has no birth, death or repeatitive birth or repeatitive deaths. It is eternal, ancient. This is inspite of the body getting destroyed. (SOUL 20)
A person who recognises the eternality, indestructibility, and infinity of the soul cannot kill any body. (SOUL 21).
Just a man changes torn clothes and wears new garments, the soul also abandon ruined bodies and take up new bodies. (SOUL 22).
Weapons cannot split the soul. Fire cannot ignite or burn the soul. Water cannot wet or drench the soul. The wind cannot dehydrate or dry it. (SOUL 23).
The immunity of the soul from being split, burnt, drenched, and dried is true, omnipresent, ancient, immovable, and static. (SOUL 24).
This live soul is inexpressible, incontemplatable, unpollutable. Know this and leave misery. (SOUL 25).
Even if you consider that this soul is born regularly and dies regularly, there is no need for you to regret about it. (SOUL 26).
Whatever is born, must die. Whatever dies, must be reborn. You need not regret about some thing which is inevitable (unstoppable). (SOUL 27).
The 'states' of the living things, before their births, are unknown. During their lives, we know their Statse. Again, after their death, we do not know what will happen. Hence, where is the place for misery. (SOUL 28).
A person looks at the soul with awe. Some other person, talks about this soul with great wonder. A third person may listen about it with extra care. Nobody can understand its true spirit clearly. (SOUL 29)
This soul which pervades all living things, is indestructible. Hence it does not befit you to regret about these creatures. (SOUL 30).
Knowing your natural prescribed duty, It does not befit you to regret. For a person of Martial caste, there can be no better duty than fighting a just war. (SOUL 31).
This incidental war is like entrance to the Heaven. Only fortunate warriors can get this opportunity of fighting this war. (SOUL 32).
(NOW KRISHNA THREATENS)
If you do not fight this war which is your just duty, you will fail in your duty, lose all your fame and attract sin. (SOUL 33).
For a respectable person, ill-fame is worse than death -- thus all the people say. (SOUL 34).
All the great warriors will consider that you have withdrawn from the war out of fear. Those who respected you as praiseworthy will now treat you lightly. (SOUL 35).
The enemies suspect and insult your capacity and fitness. They abuse you. What else can be more miserable? (SOUL 36).
If you are killed in the war, you will attain the Heaven. If you win, you can enjoy this Earth. Hence Arjuna, arise! Be determined for the war. (SOUL 37).
Treat equally the comfort and misery, profit and loss, success and defeat. If you fight the war with this equanimity, you will never attract sin. (SOUL 38).
Till now, I explained you the nature of the Soul (Saamkhyam). Performing one's own actions and duties with the awareness of the 'soul' is Yooga. Now, I shall explain you the implementation part. If you practice this intellectual plan, you will be free from the bonds of the consequences of actions of the previous births. (SOUL 39). (There is some vagueness in this verse which will be covered later).
neehaabhikramanaas`oo asti pratyavaayoo na vidyatee
svalpam api asya dharmasya traayatee mahatoo bhayaat
vyavasaaya atmikaa buddhir eekeeha kurunandana
bahus`aakhaa hi anamtaas` ca buddhayoo avyavasaaiinaam
yaam imaam pushpitaam vaacham pravadamti avipas`chita:
veedavaadarataa: paartha naanyad astiiti vaadina:
kaamaatmaana: svargaparaa janma karma phala pradaam
kriyaavis`eeshabahulaam bhoogais`varyagatim prati
vyavasaayaatmikaa buddhi: samaadhau na vidhiiyatee
traigun`yavishayaa veedaa nistraigun`yoo bhavaarjuna
nirdvamdvoo nityasattvasthoo niryoogaksheema aatmavaan
yaavaan artha udapaanee sarvata: samplutoodakee
taavaan sarveeshu veedeeshu braahman`asya vijaanata:
karman`i eevaadhikaaras tee maa phaleeshu kadaa ca na
maa karmaphalaheetur bhuur maa tee samgoo astv akarman`i
yoogastha: kuru karmaan`i
samgam tyaktvaa dhanamjaya
siddhyasiddhyoo: samoo bhuutvaa
samatvam yooga uchyatee
duureen`a hi avaram karma
buddhau s`aran`am anvichchha
buddhiyuktoo jahaatiiha ubhee sukrutadushkrutee
tasmaad yoogaaya yujyasva yooga: karmasu kaus`alam
karmajam buddhiyuktaa hi phalam tyaktvaa maniishin`a:
janmabandhavinirmuktaa: padam gachchhamti anaamayam
yadaa tee moohakalilam buddhir vyatitarishyati
tadaa gamtaasi nirveedam s`rootavyasya s`rutasya ca
s`rutivipratipannaa tee yadaa sthaasyati nis`chalaa
samaadhaav achalaa buddhis tadaa yoogam avaapsyasi
Krishna terms the path preached by him from the verses 40 to 53 Buddhi Yooga (Path of Intellect).
This path does not fail in the beginning itself. Even if the practitioner discontinues in the middle, there are no side effects. Whatever duty is done, will protect the practitioner from the bondage of fear of the mundane family. (INTELLECT 40).
Those who have a "decided intellect" keep themselves focused. The effort of those who are undecided have a divergent intellect which has myriad branches and magnitudes. (INTELLECT 41).
Those who are more interested in the arguments on the meanings of Vedas, who plead that there is no special philosophy of divinity except the fruits of heaven, those who have minds polluted with desires descrribe this birth as full of actions which provide luxuries and wealth. They argue that there is nothing else except the pleasures of the heaven, which can be achieved by rituals and sacrifices. (INTELLECT 42).
Those who will be interested in heaven and its luxuries perform desire-driven-actions. Their every movement is directed towards luxury and wealth. (INTELLECT 43).
Their dynamics of life is stolen and preoccupied by the talk of luxury and wealth. Their desire-driven-action and intellect do not synchronise with 'samaadhi' (INTELLECT 44).
Vedas relate themselves to the three qualities (Satva=Strong-enduring, Rajas=excitable, desire-driven, Tamas=ignorant-inactive). Arjuna, be free from the three qualities; be free from duality (I and they), be full of ever effervescent energy; be free of earthly welfare; be soulful. (INTELLECT 45).
The same benefits which we get from small water wells, we can obtain from large sources of water like tanks. Similarly the fruits obtained by satisfying various Gods and performing rituals stipualated in the Vedas, -- can be obtained by a knowledgeable Brahman`a. (INTELLECT 46).
You have the authority to act. But not to its fruits and results. Do not be a "Reason" for the fruits and results of actions. Do not develop interest in abandoning actions. (INTELLECT 47).
(Krishna defines YOGA in the following verse).
Do all your actions in a state of YOGArjuna -- relinquishing attachment as doer of the Actions and receiver of results, being equanimous both to successes and failures of your actions. This state of unperturbedness is called YOGArjuna ((INTELLECT 48).
Using the Path of Intellect, cease from desire-driven-action. DDA is base. Take refuse in Result Relinquished Action (RRA). Those who act for results are also base. (INTELLECT 49).
An intellectual leaves out both good deeds and bad deeds. Hence try the Yoga of Intellect. (INTELLECT 50).
Wise persons sacrifice the results of actions. They free themselves from the bondage of birth and death. They reach a state of health. (Some translators called this DELIVERANCE. Some used the word ABODE OF VISHN`U. (INTELLECT 51)
If you can overcome the impenetrable temptation filled intellect, then you will reach a state of INDIFFERENCE about what has been heard and will be heard about the results of your actions. (INTELLECT 52).
Your intellect has been shaken by various tenets of scriptures. When it calms down, answers itself and settles down, then you will attain YOGArjuna (INTELLECT 53).
(Now Arjuna wants to know the characteristics of a PERSON OF STEADY WISDOM.
sthitapragnasya kaa bhaashaa samaadhisthasya kees`ava
sthitadhii: kim prabhaasheeta kim aasiita vrajeeta kim
prajahaati yadaa kaamaan sarvaan paartha manoogataan
aatmani eevaatmanaa tusht`a: sthitapragnas tadoochyatee
du:kheeshv anudvignamanaa: sukheeshu vigataspruha:
viitaraagabhayakroodha: sthitadhiir munir uchyatee
ya: sarvatraanabhisneehas tat tat praapya s`ubhaas`ubham
naabhinandati na dveesht`i tasya pragnaa pratisht`hitaa
yadaa samharatee ca ayam kuurmoo amgaaniiva sarvas`a:
indriyaan`iindriyaartheebhyas tasya pragnaa pratisht`hitaa
vishayaa vinivartamtee niraahaarasya deehina:
rasavarjam rasoo api asya param drusht`vaa nivartatee.
gist: When a person of steady wisdom withdraws his senses from the worldly pleasures, he deniees them to his body which starves. His desire for the pleasures does not end (subconsciously). It will end when he attains the supreme spirit. (SW 59).
YBREM: Gandhiji used this verse in his Young India 25-6-1925 article titled 'Plea for Humility'. His view:
Well has the Gita said, "Passions subside in a fasting man, not the desire for them. The desire goes only when man sees God face to face." And no one can see God face to face who has aught of the I in him. He must become a cypher if he would see God. Who shall dare say in this storm-tossed universe, `I have won'? God triumphs in us, never we.
If you wish to see an analysis of this Gandhiji's quote, please: click to go to gandhijiyb.blogspot.com.
yatatoo hi api kaumteeya purushasya vipas`chita:
indriyaan`i pramaathiini haramti prasabham mana:
taani sarvaan`i samyamya yukta aasiita matpara:
vas`ee hi yasyeendriyaan`i tasya pragnaa pratisht`hitaa
dhyaayatoo vishayaan pumsa: samgas teeshu upajaayatee
samgaat samjaayatee kaama: kaamaat kroodhoo abhijaayatee
kroodhaad bhavati sammooha: sammoohaat smrutivibhrama:
smrutibhrams`aad buddhinaas`oo buddhinaas`aat pran`as`yati
raaga dveesha viyuktais tu vishayaan indriyais` ca ran
aatmavas`yair vidheeyaatmaa prasaadam adhi gachchhati
prasaadee sarvadu:khaanaam haanir asyoopajaayatee
prasanna ceetasoo hi aas`u buddhi: paryavatisht`hatee
naasti buddhir ayuktasya na ca ayuktasya bhaavanaa
na ca abhaavayata: s`aamtir as`aamtasya kuta: sukham
indriyaan`aam hi ca rataam yan manoo anuvidhiiyatee
tad asya harati pragnaam vaayur naavam ivaambhasi
tasmaad yasya mahaa baahoo nigruhiitaani sarvas`a:
indriyaan`iindriyaartheebhyas tasya pragnaa pratisht`hitaa
yaa nis`aa sarvabhuutaanaam tasyaam jaagarti samyamii
yasyaam jaagrati bhuutaani saa nis`aa pas`yatoo munee:
aapuuryamaan`am achalapratisht`ham; samudram aapa: pravis`amti yadvat
tadvat kaamaa yam pravis`amti sarvee; sa s`aamtim aapnooti na kaamakaamii
vihaaya kaamaan ya: sarvaan pumaams` ca rati ni:spruha:
nirmamoo nirahamkaara: sa s`aamtim adhigachchhati
eeshaa braahmii sthiti: paartha nainaam praapya vimuhyati
sthitvaasyaam amtakaalee api brahmanirvaan`am ruchchhati
Krishna describes the characteristics of a person of "steady wisdom".
He is called the man of steady wisdom, who: sheds his desires in his mind; within his soul, satisfies himself through his own soul (self satisfaction?), such living soul is called person with "steady wisdom (POSW)". (SW 55).
A POSW does not lose heart when there is sorrow. POSW is little aware and moved when there are things to rejoice. POSW sheds attachement, fear and anger. (SW 56).
POSW is friendly everywhere. When good things happen POSW does not rejoice. When inauspicious things take place, POSW does not hate. POSW is well established in in a balanced intellect. (SW 57).
A tortoise withdraws its limbs into its shell. POSW withdraws his senses into his balanced intellect. (SW 58).
When a POSW withdraws his senses from the worldly pleasures, he deniees them to his body which starves. His desire for the pleasures does not end (subconsciously). It will end when he attains the supreme spirit. (SW 59).
Though a POSW may be wise and effortful in keeping his senses under control, they forcibly try to drag him back into the worldly pleasures. (SW 60).
Controlling all the senses and organs, engaging and settling the mind on me (Krishna), a person gets his intellect balanced (Steady Wisdom). (SW 61).
When a person thinks of worldly pleasures, attachment is born. From the attachment is born the desire and lust. From the desire and lust are born the anger. (SW 62).
From anger, is born temptation and obsession. From the obsession is born, the loss of memory and consciousness. (Translator's comment: Not loss of consciousness of body, it is the consciousness of soul. ). When consciousness of soul is lost, a person loses his discriminating wisdom and intellect. A person without intellect becomes imbecile and condemned. (SW 63).
A POSW attains peace of mind when he with his well regulated senses passes through his worldly affairs without attachment and hatred. (SW 64).
When a mind is in peace, all the misery and dangers it faces, ameliorate. Such person's intellect gets stability quickly. (SW 65).
A person whose mind is not steady, the intellect fails. When the intellect is not in order, the thoughts will not be settled. When there are no settled thoughts, there is no peace. When there is no peace there is no comfort or happiness. (SW 66).
When the senses go berserk, the mind follows that sense which is rampant. Then that sense steals the intellect, like a boat in tumultous water, taken away by fierce winds. (SW 67). (Comment: This is a beautiful simile).
Hence, whose senses are fully controlled and withdrawn from the sensual pleasures, his intellect and wisdom will be well settled. (SW 68).
When all others are asleep, the POSW will be wide awake. When others are awake, the POSW considers it a night. (Comment: Here the meaning is figurative and literal. Sleep of others means their somnolence in sensual pleasures. When others sleep in a mire of lust, the POSW will be alert and cautious. When others work in mudane affairs, a POSW is not alignment because of his detachedness. Hence it is like a night for him.) (SW 69).
An ocean does not normally cross its bounds. A POSW does not overflow even when desires surround him. A lustful person does not get such peace. (SW 70).
The POSW attains peace -- having abandoned all the desires, become unconscious of physical existence of body, abandoned ego, and has no sense of 'me and mine'. (SW 71).
This is the state of supreme spirituality. The attainer will not be lost in temptation. If a person attains this at least in the finishing stages of his body, he gets himself amalgamated with the supreme soul. (SW 72).
Continuous thoughts about satiating desires ----> Attachments ----> Lust ----> Anger -----> Captivation ------> loss of memory ----> Loss of discriminating capabilities ----> RUIN. (SY 62 and 63)