Tuesday, December 09, 2014

037 Should Bhagavad Gita be declared as India's National Scripture / Sacred Book?



On the 7th Dec. 2014, Ms. Sushma Swaraj, the Union Minister for External Affairs, was reported to have said at Gita PreraN mahOtsav (approx. Engl:  Gita's Inspiration Festival), 5151st Anniversary of Gita, as under:

“When I read Gita for the first time, I did not agree with the concept of whatever happens, happens for the best and whatever happens in future, will be for good. But when I read it for the third and fourth time, I understood its meaning. This has helped me all through my life. Even now, when I am handling the External Affairs and the challenges related to it,”

"I am able to face the challenges as External Affairs Minister only because of the teachings of Gita."

     "...Only a formal announcement to this effect is pending. ... “The Prime Minister has already given it the stature of national granth by gifting it to US President Barack Obama.  ...”

"...psychiatrists should  read and prescribe the Gita to patients suffering from depression. ..."

Hariyana Chief Minister, Manoharlal Khattar is reported to have said:

“Gita ke sandesh ko jab hum dhyan se padhte hain , to jaisa kaha hai hamare desh ka samvidhan hi Gita hai. Gita ko samvidhaan se upar maan liya gaya hai. Kisi bhi desh ka samvidhan kaal aur paristhithi ke hisab se badalta rehta hai, lekin Gita aisa saar hai jo sahasvat hai (When we read the Gita carefully, as has been said, our Constitution is the Gita itself. In fact, the Gita is considered above the Constitution. Any country’s constitution changes with time and circumstances, but the Gita is eternal.)  ...”

Person views of ybrao a donkey, which I do not wish to impose on others:

1. What is the definition of a sacred scripture?
2. What is the definition of a National scripture?
3. Does a country require a National scripture?

The objects of Bhagavad Gita as per verses 18/42 to 44 (May be insertions by preachers), are very clear:

Gita imposes servility on SUdras (4th caste persons). What it imposes on 5th caste persons (today's word: dalits), is not clear.

Why Lord Krishna, divided only Indians into four castes?  Why did he leave the remain world untouched? 

Why did Lord Krishna take up the task of dividing Indians only into four castes?   Today , there are thousands of castes; it is a different thing.

cAtur-varNyam maya srishTam
guNa-karma-vibhAgaSah
tasya kartAram api mAm
viddhi akartAram avyayam.

It is very clear that priests and preachers have tried to legitimize their own creation of caste divisions, by attributing to Lord Krishna.

Mahatma Gandhi, Lok Manya Bala Gangadhara Tilak, and many others have used the meaning of 'karma' in Gita, to mean 'duty' and, of course, society has benefited from their getting inspired by Gita.

But, the real meaning of 'karma', as per Gita, is not a simple straight "one's own duty".  It is one's own duty as imposed by his caste.   Fortunately or unfortunately, in independent India, people are giving greater importance to wealth in the place of caste of a person.   People are accepting marital relationships with rich persons, ignoring their castes.  It is good that they are ignoring the caste element, gradually.  But they are substituting it with a bigger mill-stone, 'wealth'.  Cure should not be worse than disease.

The reason for Mahabharata war was internecine disputes.  It has nothing to do with religion or defending a Nation. The dispute arose because of presumed insult suffered by Duryodhana, and gambling disputes between Pandavas and Kauravas.

Indians seem to have learnt this predisposition to gambling 24 x 7 x 365 from Pandavas, Kauravas , Yadavas (Balarama was a gambler), Vidarbha (Rukmini's brother Rukmi was a gambler.   Balarama killed him in a gambling dispute), Nala et al.  Gambling is a trait of Aryans.  We find mantras in Atharvana Veda, praying Gods for success in gambling.   21st Century Indian gambling does not leave out anything.  Stock exchanges, cricket, weather, elections, car numbers, matka-bracket, horse-races, card-games, what not.

Indians have to find out a solution for these evils of alcoholism, prostitution, unofficial wives, gambling and wife-beating (wife-betting?) etc.   Without solutions for these evils, having a National Scripture will be like adorning a skeleton with silk cloth.


India's priority today is not getting a National scripture.  Its priorities should be:

1. Population control.

2. Removal of inequalities of income and wealth.  For this probably Right of property will have be removed. Democratic Marxism can help in this respect.

3. Producing food, clothing, shelter, skill generation, indigenously, on a large scale.

4. Solar energy, sea-wave energy, wind energy, probably hydrogen fuel.

5. Confining religion to individual and family level, within the boundaries of home.  For this we have to remove priests of all religions and close down prayer houses.  Of course, Marxism can use their services for some other productive purposes, and provide them greater intrinsic job satisfaction, than what they are getting now.  Pl. see point No. 7 below.

6. Reduce dependence of agriculture on monsoons, by bringing every inch of cultivable land under drip irrigation.

7. Develop a culture of 'dignity of physical work'.  Every individual from top industrialist to the bottom laborer should have a combination of physical work for 4 hours, mental work 3 hours, and intellectual work 1 hour.  This is possible only by implementing Marxism.

8. India is very fast in learning habits which ought not to be learnt from the West.  Example pubs, cricket, films, porno, excess alcohol and non-veg. consumption.

9. The institution of family has become a bondage, to all the three-- husbands, wives and children.  The institution of family and marriage is to be substituted by better designed community families.  Modified Marxism can help in this.  Society and Govt. can take care of all children, and relieve parents from the burden of raring children.

10. Better care of aged persons, physically challenged persons, by the society and Government, as a legal duty, instead of leaving it to charitable institutions and so called philanthropists who are nothing but vultures.

It may not be correct to say that Constitution of a country is superior to Gita, or that Gita is superior to Constitution.  Reason:  Constitutions too are made by political parties.  Today, Mr. Narendra Modi and BJP have become virtual dictators with a sweeping majority.  Once they get appropriate majority in the Upper House (Rajya Sabha), they are capable of writing a new Constitution.  Indian Constitution, in particular, is vulnerable to frequent amendments, at the whims and fancies of the parties in power.

Ms. Sushma Swaraj has unnecessarily opened up a pandora box.  BJP leaders have a tendency of raking up non-issues in the guise of Indian culture.  Of course, Congress was worse in this respect, in the guise of minority protection.

Thus Indians are left between devil and the deep sea.



(To continue.)

Thursday, October 23, 2014

031 Does Bhagavad Gita preach non-violence?


ShSTelugu language:  031 భగదవద్గీత అహింసను బోధిస్తుందా ?

 हिन्दी : क्या भगवद गीता अहिंसोपदेश करता है ?

One website wrote.  ఒక వెబ్ సైట్ వారు వ్రాశారు.  एक वॆब सैट ने लिखा है।

“How can reading about war lead to inner peace? And what does this have to do with yoga today?

Whether seemingly dated or contradictory, one of the century’s greatest peacemakers, Mahatma Gandhi, believed that the Gita’s overall message was that of non-violence—a powerful message for contemporary living. Learning the true meaning of ahimsa (non-violence)—and interpreting this into present-day context—is only one of many reasons yoga students should read the Gita. ..."


This answer does not seem to be on right lines, in my humble opinion.


ybrao-a-donkey's humble opinion.

Bhagavad Gita is like the proverbial elephant, in the story of seven blind persons.  A person touching the legs or trunk of an elephant may perceive it as a log of wood.  A person touching its tail may view it as a large brush.  A person touching its torso may perceive it as a small boulder.  So on.

Most religious practitioners of the world,  suffer from a tunnel vision arising from childhood religious training they receive from their parents, teachers, religious teachers, neighbors, books.

To critically understand the purport of religious discourses and scriptures, one will have to start with a clean slate, getting rid of the influences of birth religion, religions of the Regions and country they live.  The scriptures should be viewed from the perspective of an outsider who has shall have nothing within haunting his mind except history and reason.

Though Gandhiji was greatly influenced by Bhagavad Gita, and was immensely benefited by its tenets, I personally feel that he did not read Bhagavad Gita in depth.  Besides, his studies of Bhagavad Gita was full of great reverence.  I do not want to say that people should not have reverence to Bhagavad Gita. 


It is only necessary to highlight that when read with a bending and kneeling reverence,  analyses and examination of any book will not be free of favourable prejudices, and they will overlook all faults.

If  persons of a different religion read the same book as a Hindu scripture, their analyses will be reflect an adversarial outlook and they will find only faults.

The Mahabharata war was not about saving a country from foreign invasions, in which case the meaning of  'karma = duty' as a duty to defend the country from barbarians will arise.  The dispute was between brothers who gambled with dice recklessly, betting even wives and brothers as if they were personal chattels (tangible movable proerties).


Arjuna was right in expressing his view that his mind revolts against killing brothers, uncles and grandfathers, and that he could not eat blood stained food.  Arjuna, was of course, on a wrong side when he said that as a result of war, there would be large number of widows and that there would be debauchery and pollution of castes (varNa sankaram).  Nevertheless, Arjuna was justified in thinking twice before waging  the bloody war.


Even if assuming that kshatriya kings of (warrior barons) of those days were fighting among themselves to settle their old animosities, why should they indulge in battles involving death of thousands of  innocent soldiers, cartsmen (chariot drivers), horses  and elephants, simply because they were paid some paltry sums as salaries.  Lord Srikrishna, being Bhagavan should have thought about this massive destruction of innocent cartsmen, soldiers, horses and elephants. 

Instead He chose, to pridefully exhibit to Arjuna his cosmic form, showing creatures going into his mouth, and saying that it was He who was slaying and that Arjuna was not slaying.  This could be nothing but an insertion made by priests either on their own volition or at the instance of succeeding kings.  To this, the Priests have also added a story that the very object of Lord Krishna's was to reduce the burden of this Goddess Earth (bhUdEvi) which was unable to bear the weight of the sinful kings and their soldiers.

Thus Bhagavad Gita can by any means can be said to have spread or intended to spread a message of non-violence.

Another question of pertinence which cannot escape of an unbiased viewer is, why all the sinner kings and soldiers were only in India?  These sinners exist all over the world in the past, exist at present, and will exist in future also. If at all God wanted to establish peace, he could have straight entered into the minds and hearts of the sinners ad changed their minds.  There is no need of this priest-like preaching of living soul linking to the supreme soul (this is the essence of yoga = union of jIvAtmA with paramAtma).

Supreme God if  at all He existed as a Supreme Creator, Savior, Extinguisher of people and their sins , He could have administered this world in a straight transparent manner.

In all the religions, there ought not to have been a need for a Supreme Preacher and thousands of subordinate preachers who interpret the supreme preacher's words in their own different ways.


Modern Wars

We shall take the example of Chinese invasion of India.  In 1962, one dark cold night, China invaded India and occupied about 36,000 sq. miles of Indian territory.  Here was a dire need for defending the territorial integrity of the country.  Nearly 20,000 soldiers laid down their lives for defending India.  The war was inconclusive.  China did not return the occupied lands to India.

But India started doing business with China.  Today India buys nearly $50 billion of Chinese goods from China and sells Indian merchandise worth about $20 billion to China.  What happened for the sacred duty (karma, kartavya) of defending the country?

Should we or should we NOT compare the  21st Century rulers of India. i.e. its Presidents, Prime Ministers, Cabinet, MPs of both Upper and Lower Houses, National Security Advisers et al to the kshatriyas of the Mahabharata / Bhagavad Gita period?  Should they fight the war or worry about Indo-Chinese Trade

 Indian Prime Ministers and Chief Ministers visit China too frequently, praying for Chinese investments into India.  Corporates like TaTas invest billions of dollars in China, when their Motherland India is starving for investments and the poor of the country do not have two square meals a day.

Why doesn't  Bhagavad Gita enter into picture, to impart the right path, of performing the right type of 'karma' to Indian rulers of the 21st Century ?  Today's Indian rulers have to study Bhagavad Gita every day and search in it for solutions.   Can we say that promoting trade and looking after the interests of the traders,  is more important and paramount, than a getting a border dispute settled amicably?

Any non-violent crusading policy-maker might have tried to go slow on tourism and trade, till the border dispute is settled.

I do not want to belittle Bhagavad Gita in any manner.  It is not my goal.  I am more concerned about the approaches of interpreters, approaches of rulers,  and not about the merits or demerits of scriptures which were set thousands of years back.  That socio economic-political environment does not exist today.  Hence, the less relevance of ancient scriptures.

There is also a danger of law and order problems and communal tensions arising, whenever inconsistencies in religious scriptures are pointed out, howsoever reasonable that criticism may be.   Hence, it is better not to criticise all/any religious scriptures, if people are to live harmony.

It will be better to wait patiently, till a paradigm upward shift takes place in the analytical capabilities of people of all religions.


(To continue. ఇంకా ఉంది. सशेष.)







030 Who assigned these duties? What authority they have to assign the duties?

One Gita preacher is said to have spoken to the English Daily THE HINDU published from South India.  Here are some quotes.

The Bhagavad Gita can be a source of inspiration for GenX, who feel stress and stain in day to day life


The Gita tells us not to mortgage the present commitment to an uncertain future. But, the youth was more concerned about their future. Neither they should spend time on thinking on past. The Gita asks to discharge duties assigned to you. Unless you stop pondering over future, success will not come to you.
       What will a child learn from life of a cricketer who hasn’t paid tax for his car? Mere being a star batsman doesn’t suffice
ybrao-a-donkey's observations

There is nothing wrong in students thinking about past, present or future.  Their rights and duties are to be arrived at consensually by students, parents, teachers, probably with some inputs from the Governments and experts. 


Our country is overpopulated beyond repair.  
Consequently, there are going to be moments of anxiety and despair to parents and students, owing to unemployment and underemployment, in spite of having skills and capabilities.  This is going to be the result of excess supply of labor.  Creation and improvement of skills is one solution.  It is only one tool for making students more employ-able, internationally. 

Demand-creation for the skills of the students and unemployed, will definitely become a duty for the society and the Government.  These things have to evolve in a carefully planned and organised manner, without hurting youth.  For this  task, the precepts of Gita cannot be stretched usefully beyond a limit.




GITA'S PRESCRIPTION OF DUTIES

The duties which the preacher said, have been assigned to individuals are irrelevant in today's Capitalist System and Economy.

The duties assigned (imposed) in Bhagavad Gita were caste based.  See verses 43,44,45 in Chapter 18. ( Moksha Sanyasa yOga , a chapter which was supposed to have dealt with Liberation of Individual).

MSY 41
braahman`a kshatriyavis`aam s`uudraan`aam ca paramtapa
karmaan`i pravibhaktaani svabhaava prabhavair gun`ai:
s`amoo damas tapa: s`aucham kshaamtir aarjavam eeva ca
gnaanam vignaanam aastikyam brahmakarma svabhaavajam

MSY 42
s`auryam teejoo dhrutir daakshyam yuddhee ca api apalaayanam
daanam iis`varabhaavas` ca kshatrakarma svabhaavajam
krushi goorakshya vaan`ijyam vais`yakarma svabhaavajam




paricaryaatmakam karma s`uudrasyaapi svabhaavajam

svee svee karman`i abhirata: samsiddhim labhatee nara:
svakarma nirata: siddhim yathaa vindati tat s`run`u

yata: pravruttir bhuutaanaam yeena sarvam idam tatam
svakarman`aa tam abhyarchya siddhim vindati maanava:

s`reeyaan svadharmoo vigun`a: paradharmaat svanusht`hitaat
svabhaavaniyatam karma kurvan naapnooti kilbisham

Oh Schorchrer of foes! All the duties and Actions of the Priests, Warriors, Merchants, the Fourth Caste, have all been apportioned and assigned as per the inherent qualities. (DELIVERANCE 41). (Comment: This is a ridiculous and monstrous prescription. How actions, duties and qualities can be attributed, divided and assigned to castes! Who divided them! Krishna? The Priests? The Warriors?).



Control of internal senses, Control of the external senses, penance, internal and external hygiene, endurance, simplicity, knowledge, awareness, faith (in scriptures and God) are the qualities inherent to the Priests. (DELIVERANCE 42).

Valor, vigor, courage, efficiency and effectiveness, not fleeing from the battle field, charity, desire to rule the world are all the inherent duties and Actions of a Warrior. (DELIVERANCE 43).
Agriculture, cow-rearing, trade, are the inherent functions of a Trader-caste-born person. Service is the inherent function of a Fourth-Caste born. (DELIVERANCE 44).


Those who perform their duties and actions will be entitled to fulfilment of knowledge. I shall explain you how. (DELIVERANCE 45).
The person who performs his duties will be worshipping that Supreme God from which all the Creatures have emerged and who is pervading throughout the Universe and attaining fulfilment. (Doing one's own duty is the worship). (DELIVERANCE 46).
A prescribed duty and Action.defectively performed is better than a well discharged function which is alloted to others. A person who does his duty and action inherent to his nature will not get sin. (DELIVERANCE 47).


Most Gita preachers belong to top caste of preachers.  For retaining their hold on the Society, they can misinterpret the contents of Gita.

The modern TV preachers have a habit of mixing up things.  They bring in Alluri Sitarama Raju (freedom fighter), Bhagat Singh (freedom fighter) into picture.  Late Alluri Sitarama Raju and Bhagat Singh have nothing to do with the caste system or caste imposed duties which Bhagavad Gita preaches.  Whereas the Central idea of Bhagavad Gita was Four caste system of Priests, Barons (kshatriyas), Trader-Middle-sized farmers (Vysyas of those days), and the landless laborers (Sudras), Alluri Sitarama Raju and Bhagat Singh laid down their lives for the liberation of this country.

Preacher's comment about cricketers

While children and youth may be wrong in looking for inspiration towards cricketers, the children may also NOT gain much by listening to TV preachers, because preachers have forgotten to apply their minds about the social environment of the Mahabharata period, Gupta period in which Mahabharata evolved as a scripture, subsequent Centuries in which society evolved as a feudalist society and later transformed into a Capitalist society.  This deviation of the preachers is  to gain public acceptability, and earn some money.

If the children are to really gain anything in construction of their character and personality, they have to study each verse of Gita in depth, filter out meaningless verses and try to implement some of the verses which stand to reason.  Such verses may not be more than 10.

We can't pass comments on Bhagavad Gita, even if they are genuine and stand the test of reason, because there will be law and order problems and people will be easily hurt.  It will be better to wait till people become more enlightened and are willing to spend some time, effort, analytical thoughts on the environment of the Bhagavad Gita days, its purport, and apply the 'sieves' of their mind.

Wednesday, April 11, 2012

029 Is there any thing like 'your religion' and 'my religion'?

Question: Is there anything like 'your religion' and 'my religion'?

Ans: This is a beautiful question.

This 'your' and 'my/our/their' (these are all possessive adjectives) apply not only to religions, but also to so many objects and persons, we believe are mine/ours/yours/his/hers/theirs.

We can call this, 'sangam = attachment' philosophically.

Some attachments come by birth e.g. my mother, my child.
Some attachments come from close family members: father through mother, siblings through parents, friends through schools, neighborhoods, jobs, hobbies etc.
Some attachments come by instincts: breast-sucking, food, sleep, rest, sex, etc.
Attachment to religion:
Being born in a particular religion (some religions have sub-segments) is accidental.
Babies do not have castes, when born.
Parents, relatives, neighbors, teachers, Governments emboss, etch, impose and impress castes upon individuals. It is just like branding of bullocks and horses with hot iron. Or 'ear-tags', if we have to use a milder term.
Perceived benefits and threats of punishments of God and adherence/disobedience to religion are injected to the minds of children and adolescents.
A person becomes like a fly trapped in a spider's web, by the time heshe reaches an age of 20, with embedded biases.

rAgam (obsessive love) and dvEsham (obsessive hate), start occupying minds of youth, from this point.

Extensive reading of both sacred books, history and science books can help persons to find out facts for themselves, but this does not happen because minds are already closed.

We have some films. A child of X religion gets lost in a crowd. A childless couple of Y religion picks himher up and nourish himher in the traditions of Y religion. This child, when it grows up reacts like a person belonging to religion Y instead of religion X. The extent of his fanaticism to religion X and hatred towards religion Y depends upon the branding made by hisher parents, neighbors, community, society, Governments, schools and colleges, books, internet, ... so on.

Gist: The ideas of 'my religion' and 'your religion' are imaginary. But this sangam (attachment) is difficult to get rid of, just as a branded horse cannot get rid of its marks. I read in some American literature, that slaves used to be branded with irons in Europe and United States. We are like that.

028 Replies to comments of Mr. Mustafa

mustafa said...

who told u Quran has flaws..not even 1 error has been proven to be true by any scholar of any religion..information available on the internet is often edited or quoted out of context to malign islam and its holy book Quran.You comment on you religion alone and dont compare it to any other religion.



REPLY
Some religions do not have good reputation for their tolerance of criticism. Hence, no scholar of their own religion or some other religion will point out errors, even if found. Nobody will like to enter muddy ponds.


What intolerant organisations-- religions or any other -- should understand is: Critics benefit them, by showing their flaws and suggesting solutions and even probably helping them in corrections. It is how,  organisations and religions, progress.  Intolerance retards correction of errors and promotes perpetration of traditional errors.  Flatterers of religions, shower praise on face and stab from behind.

It is for the practitioners of Islam to study and understand their scriptures with an impartial mind, and try to get any flaws rectified with the consent of their religious elders and preachers.  If the elders and preachers issue fatwas, there will be a real problem.  Hence few rationalist people in Islam raise their voices, and bear everything dumbly.  Neither will outsiders intervene, even if there is a great need for such intervention. 

However one important thing should not be overlooked

Criticising religious scriptures of all religions in this world, is fraught with grave risk of law and order problems, not only in the country of criticism's origin, but can engulf Nations, Continents, and Worlds.  Hence there is a need for critics and writers to exercise extra care.

Sunday, January 15, 2012

027 Is Bhagavad Gita better than Bible?

Question: Is Bhagavad Gita better than Bible?
Answer: We cannot compare sacred books of two different religions. Such comparisons will unnecessarily lead to communal disputes and mutual hatred. Sacred Books are believed by followers of religion out of faith rather than careful reading and analysis. Persons cannot view their sacred books without bias because the family elders, and religious preachers have already etched certain beliefs on the minds of followers when they were children and adolescents. These followers, when they advance and expose themselves to the vagaries of the world, add some more likes and dislikes, either on their volition or on their surrender to penetrations by freinds, preachers and relatives.
We can only make comparisons of substance from an irreligious angle. I am not using the word 'secular', because, in India it has lost its original meaning of unconcernedness with religion and acquired a new meaning of equality to all religions.
When you read the blog posts here, I expressly insist on a promise from you, that you will view things FROM AN IRRELIGIOUS ANGLE. If you are a person who is likely to be hurt by my disclosures, better you leave my blogs. However, I welcome you to post your candid and frank comments even if they are harsh.

Wednesday, January 11, 2012

026 Gandhiji's placebos Gita-Bible-Qoran

I reproduce what I wrote at my blog http://gandhijiyb.blogspot.com. The effect of Gita on Mahatma Gandhi was covered by me there in some more posts.


Personal humble views of ybrao-a-donkey
Here is a part-quote from the speech of Mahatma Gandhi. Source: Vol. 32 of Complete Works of Mahatma Gandhi.
Date: July 1, 1925.
Place: Kolkata (Calcutta).
Context: SPEECH ON THE "SHRADDHA" DAY OF C. R. DAS (Desabandhu Chitta Ranjan Das)/
Shraddha = After burial/cremation of a dead person, an additional mourning-worship of ancestors ceremony is performed on 10th day or any other day depending on custom.




...I speak often in the Ashram, but then it is before my own people; they understand and bear with me. Moreover, as occasion arises, I quote something from the Gita, and even then the talk would not be called a religious discourse. To me religion means living in the way prescribed by religion. A discourse may be in place occasionally, but not every religious man can give one. It is true, though, that anyone who gives such discourses should himself be a man of dedicated religious life. ...


YBREMs:
This speech shows the oratorial capabilities of Mahatma Gandhi. It is a regretable thing that Indian leaders of today, cannot give such inspiring speeches as Gandhiji gave. I cannot reproduce the full text for copy right reasons. I furnish below a link, where you can see the full text: http://ltrc.iiit.ac.in/gwiki/index.php/Collected_Works/Volume_32/Speech_On_The_Shraddha_Day_%281st_July_1925%29.

*Mahatma Gandhi was a great person. He is the father of our Nation. I respect his views. I, do not at the same time, agree with his views expressed in the speech. The speech was quite befitting the occasion. I have to write five or six blog posts to express my humble ideas.

*I believe that after 85 years of that speech, it may not be totally wrong for us to analyse the contents of the speech, vis-a-vis Gandhiji, Gita, Gandhiji's Ashram, Indian freedom movement.

*Gandhiji was supreme Head of his Ashram. Everybody would listen without demur or disobedience or indifference. If anybody raises any question, probably others may send him/her out and the gates of the Ashram may be closed to him/her. It was the questioner, who had to go out. Gandhiji could give any discourse at his will, just as I can write anything in this blog as long as the Government of India or the Google or my readers do not object or ask me to remove.



*Gandhiji's sentence "To me religion means living in the way prescribed by religion." is very vague. Almost all religious preachers insist on this living as per the prescription of the religion. Christian Pastors, Sunni clerics, and Hindu Swamijis. Everybody insists on LIVE AS PER RELIGION and wants to supervise the 'living of the followers of the religion'.


One important question which I am constrained to raise and which cannot be totally ignored is: Who has inserted the prescriptions into the religion?

Gandhiji wanted to follow the prescriptions contained in Gita and Mahabharata. Now, Gita 18/42-43-44 say that a Vaisya should cultivate land and do business. Did Gandhiji live like a true Vysya? Mahabharata says that Saraswati River disappeared because she hated Sudras.(For quote , please my Mahabharata blog mahabharatayb.blogspot.com.). Would Mahatma Gandhi also hate Sudras? Mahabharata said that the body of a Sudra woman was like a corpse. Would Mahatma Gandhi have considered the body of a Sudra woman as a corpse?


Living by religious prescriptions is never possible for two reasons: 1. They, themselves contain good and obnoxious things. 2. The preachers who undertake the task of interpreting them have their own good intentions, misconceptions, superstitions, and an opportunistic way of explaining things.



Example: There is a verse in Mahabharata which indicates that pork was served to the guests who attended the Rajasuya and Mayasabha of the King Yudhishthira. These guests included Brahmins and Rishis. Pork or bacon or ham (varaha mamsa) might have been a part of lunches and dinners of those days. When I brought this verse to the notice of a priest, he said: "Priests of those days were not eating pork. They were just supposed to smell it as a TOKEN. Smelling was not eating."

Gandhiji ought to have suggested for a common moral code which every Indian can follow whatever be his religion. If every person starts living by the prescriptions of his own religion and NOTHING ELSE, only CHAOS and STRIFE will result. That situation has already started in India. People are ceasing to be natural humans. They are living like religious humans.


Gandhiji wanted Gita to guide him. Krishna told Arjuna to fight because it was the duty of a Kshatriya to fight. Was it Gandhiji's duty to give religous discourses? Since, every religious man cannot give discourses, can others give discourses? Whose duty was it to give discourses?


Even in 1925, Gita was out of alignment with the times. It was a good thing that Gandhiji got his inspiration from Gita, in spite of its inadequacies. Gandhiji might have received his inspirations from Bible, Quran and other religious scriptures also, in spite of their inadequacies. Notwithstanding all that, we got our freedom.


Probably because British rulers thought that they were incurring losses by governing India. (Cost of governing India WAS more than the moneys, goods and services which they COULD transfer to England).

I do not want to belittle GANDHI'S contribution to freedom. At the sametime, we cannot belittle the contribution of millions of persons.


Millions of people fought for the freedom. It was not a one-man show. For example, my own maternal grand father lost all his property in freedom movement and left his wife as an orphan to work as a cook to feed six children.


Thousands of freedom fighters suffered as much as Gandhi and Nehru. Some have suffered far more. They were kept in solitary confinement. They were tied to Oil rotors like bullocks and made to pull THEM the whole day. Some freedom fighters were asked to break stones. They were not supplied news papers, writing desks and ink pots just as Gandhi and Nehru Incorporated were FURNISHED WITH. From whom the silent sufferers got their inspirtion? Gandhiji as an inspirer was only an external instrument or object. There was something in them, which was making them to bend their backs TO the police lathis. Not just the Gita-driven Gandhiji and Gandhiji-driven masses.


For that matter, the principal motivator, even for Gandhiji, might not have been Gita or Mahabharata. Gandhiji might not have been aware of the impulses which were hidden within himself and acting upon him. This idea of hidden impulses, I am not fabricating. Most of us have hidden impulses, of which we may not be conscious of. To illustrate this idea, take myself.


We just start believing. As an atheist and Marxist, I may be believing that Karl Marx is guiding me. But in reality, it may be some other impulse. May be an ambition to get recognition. May be an ambition to make money through Google Adsense, though expressly, I may deny or disown that impulse.



What is the gist? Our perceptions may not be in consonance with facts. Gandhiji, might have, perhaps, erroneously believed that he was getting his inspiration from Gita. But, I am not competent to say this.

Gandhiji's placebos were, I believe Gita, Bible and Quran.

Saturday, December 24, 2011

025 Should Bhagavad Gita be banned?

Should Bhagavad Gita be banned?

Answer: No.

Reasons:
*No book can be perfect. Even Bible and Quran have flaws.
*Simply because there are flaws, we cannot ban a book.

Should flaws in sacred books be deleted
Answer: No.

Reasons:
*Censoring or excising will distort history.
*Will infringe freedom of expression.
*Authorities (whether Government or otherwise) may not always act with honesty and due care and diligence.
*Personal, subjective views may influence their decisions.

What type of exceptions we can give to the above indelibility?
*Those which if left unbanned/uncensored will cause great damage/violence in immediate future. This task can be entrusted to legal system.

What risks we can see in ignoring flaws by allowing them to continue without being highlighted?
*Innocent persons, impressionable adolescents may think that the flawed statements are beneficial to the society. They may become firm believers in the flawed statements.

What, then, can be a solution, for handling the flaws?.
*Just highlight them and leave.
*If the books preach some cruel things, we need not practice. We can reject them by giving reasons.

E.g. Many religious books preach that we should kill non-believers (pagans/kaffirs/mlechchas etc.). This will lead to persecution of innocent persons. Fanatics will order killing of everybody, who displeases them. This is the reason for the crucifixion of Jesus Christ. Some Islamic Clerics are issuing fatwas to kill X or Y.

Should the Indian Government use its influence over the Russian Government, to prevent a legal ban of Bhagavad Gita in Russia?.

Answer: In a way 'No.'.

Reasons:
*Banned books will get fresh demand and lease of life. People will be more interested to read banned books, just out of curiosity. They would have otherwise bothered to notice them.

*A decision may be left to the judicial system of Russia. So far, there are no indications that the Russian judicial system is biased or imbecile.

*Over-reacting to criticism is also a sign of fanaticism. Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Sikhism, Buddhism etc. seem to be dominated by fanatics who overact or overreact.

*Peoples and civilisations which refuse to read or which are denied the opportunity of reasonably good books like Bhagavad Gita (though not PERFECT which no book can be) will be left out with only hard porn and gossip. Bhagavad Gita does not suffer. If somebody refuses to drink water of tanks/rivers because they have pollutants, the person refusing will die out of thirst. Water is scarce. It has to be cleaned and consumed, if people are to live.

Sunday, May 22, 2011

024 Gita influenced great persons


Question: What is common among

Adi ShankarAchArya
Aurobindo
bElvAlkar
BhanDArkar
dayAnanda saraswati
eDvin Arnold
Franklin Edgertan
LokMAnya Bala Gangadhara Tilak
MaxMueller
rAjArAm mOhana rAy
rAmAnujAchArya
Rudolf Otto
Swami Vivekananda
Vinoba BhAvE
Answer:
They have all tried to interpret Bhagavad Gita in their own way.

Gita influenced Mahatma Gandhi also.

Mahatma Gandhi and Lok MAnya Tilak were great leaders of Indian Freedom Struggle. Hence, Indian Freedom Struggle has also been influenced by Bhagavad Gita.

This is list incomplete. I shall try to present in more detail the variations in their interpretations, and of course add my views also.

Saturday, May 21, 2011

023 Buddhist Influences on Bhagavad Gita


Question: What is the influence of Buddhism on Bhagavad Gita?
Probable Answers:
The hInayAna Buddhism (thEravAda) does not seem to have much influence on Gita.

Epic Hinduism developed from Veda Hinduism. Bhagavad Gita is a part of the Epic Mahabharata and hence a part of Epic Hinduism. The three epics (Mahabharata, Mahabhagavata (Purana?), and Ramayana) did not totally disapprove sacrifices with vEdic chants.

There was no place for devotion (bhakti) in vEdic sacrifices. Epics not only approved devotion but also canvassed for and encouraged it.

mAhAyAna Buddhism also encouraged "devotion" - the devotion towards Buddha.

mAhAyAna buddhism considered Buddha as an incarnation of God. Mahabharata canvassed Krishna as the incarnation of God. Ramayana canvassed Rama as the incarnation of God. Mahabhagavata detailed the ten incarnations of Lord vishNu.

Hinduism started accepting Buddha as the ninth incarnation of Lord vishNu.

Bhagavadgita did not speak of, or encourage idol worship. All the three epics MahAbhAgavata, MahAbhAgavata and rAmAyaNa are silent about idol worship. The idol worship seems to have started in the post-Harsha (Harsha was a 7th Century Emperor of India during whose rule Huen Tsang visited India.) period.

Hindus imitating the mAhAyAna Buddhist practice of idol worship, Buddhism seems to have lost its competitive edge in India.

021 INTRODUCTION to Gita (under Revision)

INTRODUCTION AND FAQQUESTIONANSWER/EXPLANATION
NEED FOR THIS BOOK
Though there are many books and websites, they aim at propagating the message of the Bhagavad Gita. This blog book aims at an impartial analysis of what Sri Krishna (or the Priests using Krishna and Gita as an instrument) orate(s). INDEPENDENT BOOKBhagavadgita is a part of Mahabharata (Pronounced Mahabhaarata. It is in Bhishma Parva. Gita has all the ingredients of an independent book. Hence, some criticis believe that it was interpolated in Gita.AUTHOR OF GITA
Veeda Vyaasa, being the author of Mahabharata.CONTEXT OF GITA IN MAHABHARATA
Pandavas (Pronounced Paamd`avaas) and Kauravas line up their armies for commencing the Mahabharata war.
Arjuna, the middle of the five Pandava brothers is one of the chief warriors on the Pandava side. He asks his charioteer, friend, philosopher and guide Krishna to move the chariot to the forefront of the Kaurava forces, to enable a clear perspective of the warriors on the other side.
When Arjuna saw the knights on the Kaurava side, he found that he was fighting his battles with his cousins, uncles and grandfathers. Unable to foresee a picture of killing all the near and dear whose love he received and cherished in his boyhood, Arjuna wishes to withdraw from the war and retreat to forests. For him the prospects of bloodshed were unbearable and unthinkable.
He prostrates at the feet of Krishna, who at that moment, acted as preceptor and motivator and administered this massive piece of advice of about 714 verses.
BhagavadGita is regarded as a masterpiece of philosophy by thinkers world round; Hindus rever it.
Some verses in Gita (short for BhagavatGita) have considerable merit; some others are mediocre; some others breed superstitions; some others are socially oppressive.
Every attempt is being made here to make an impartial translation and analysis. The object is not word to word translation. The goals are clarity, and the expression of probable intent of the writer in reasonable terms. NO OF


Total No. of VERSES IN GITA
714. It would have been tedious to orate this on a battle field, at the nick of the moment. Most Sanskrit verses can be sung with or without accompaniment of string/wind instruments and percussion instruments. Even if instruments are not used, there is an element of humming before and at the end of the verse, to sound melodic. More so for a philosopher like Krishna who claims to be God. Assuming that two minutes are used for each verse it takes 1428 minutes to sing or nearly
24 hours. This gives scope to the theory of subsequent interpolations by priests.Discuss the term 'karma'Karma has four common meanings. 1. The fruits of actions. There are of three types a) Sanchita Karma: accumulated good and bad fruits of actions of past birth. b) agami (pr:praarabdha) karma: Actions from just immediate past birth; c) Agami (pr: Aagaami) Karma: Actions of this birth.
2. karma: Actions. Often rituals like charity, worship, sacrifices, penance etc.
3. karma: One's own duty. This meaning influenced the great Indian leaders like Mahatma Gandhi, Swami Viekananda, and Lokmanya Tilak.
4. karma= One's own duty as prescribed by the four caste structure. Gita uses this meaning. In Gita, God (Krishna or the priests) say: "I created the four castes'. According to Gita, people inherit their behaviour and characteristics from their birth caste. The birth in a particular caste is influenced by the actions of the previous births. A man who did some virtuous deeds in his previous births would be born in higher castes and would inherit the behavior and character of a higher caste person so on and so forth. Since Gita is taught by Brahmins they kept for themselves the top qualities, followed by the kings. Lower down, only slavery and service was left. (In my personal opinion--I shall be subject to correction--by learned readers, Gita is a shame on Indian conscience, at least as far as the caste inheritance and insistence is concerned.)
Yoga (pronounced Yooga)
The word YOGA is born from YUGA i.e. UNION. Its English equivalent is 'yoke'. Farmers use a yoke to tie up two bullocks in tandem for ploughing land and drawing carts. The Union is of the human soul with the Supreme Soul (God). Over a period of time, it extended to different yogic practices which are means of attaining the yoga. Thus physical exercises called 'Aasanas' (sitting postures) have come to be known as yoga in common parleys.
Yoga has other derived meanings like 'a tool'.
In Gita, all the 18 chapters have the suffix yoga. Eg. Arjuna Vishaada Yoga. Here, we cannot apply the meaning of Union of Arjuna's grief. Contextually, in Gita, Yoga means a mental State. The mental State may be of Grief or Action (Karma Yooga), Gnaana Yooga (Mental State of having Known).
In Chapter 2 Verse No. INTELLECT 48 , Krishna defined more Yoga clearly. It has three ingredients: 1. Abandon the idea of being a doer 2. Abandon the idea of being receiver of results 3. Equanimity and unperturbedness both to successes and failures.
Discuss the term 'Brahma' or BrahmamThe term Brahma has two contextual meanings:
1. Brahma=Four headed creator. (4H Brahma).
2. Brahmam= 'Supreme Spirit pervading the Universe. Infinite. Birthless, Deathless'. The essense of Bhagavad Gita is: Everybody should try to yoke 'his living soul' with the 'supreme spirit'. At the end (death), the living soul leaves the body and gets absorbed into the supreme spirit. This is Deliverance (Moksha). Benefit: Freedom from the cycle of rebirths and the threat of entering lowly animal and insect bodies.
Originally Brahma and Brahmam were same. During the advent of 'Vishnu' as Supreme Spirit, a separate creator Brahma (Padmabhava) was made out from a lotus born from the naval umbellical chord of Vishnu (Padmanabha). Brahma became son of Vishnu. Brahma is a part of trinity and should have been ranked equal to Vishnu. Shiva (the Destroyer God) -the third member of the Trinity was said to have cut the fifth head of Brahma to tame him down. Brahma since then is believed to have only four heads (caturmukha). In the four caste system, Brahmins were originally worshipping the Supreme Spirit initially (Brahmam and Brahma as same). Kshatriyas (Rulers) were worshipping Lord Vishnu. In a struggle for superiority between Brahmins and the Rulers, the Kings gained an upper hand. Brahma was relegated down to be an inferior God, ruling the inferior world called 'Satya Loka'. Brahma was driven out of temples and denied of regular worship.
Priests compiled and explained Mahabharata inlcuding Gita, Maha Bhagavata, in temples at the instance of Mid-West Indian KIngs who claimed to be descendents of Krishna and Pandavas. They presented Krishna as the incarnation of Vishnu and elevated him to Brahmam (the Supreme Spirit). In Bhagavata, the 4H Brahma was humiliated for trying to compete with Krishna. According to some scriptures, 4H Brahma has an end at the end of his fixed life. (?). According to some other books, 4H Brahma is a post with changing incumbancies.
Bhagavad Gita is concerned with the Supreme Spirit and Krishna being the same.
Can we compare the Gita's Supreme Spirit to Yehova (Yehwe=Eternal)? -- We may do because Gita argues that the Supreme Spirit is eternal.
I examined whether the Supreme Spirit can be compared to the Holy Spirit of the Christian Trinity and the Noble Quran. It appears that Bible does not recognise the Holy Spirit and the concept of Trinity. Only a sect of the Christians (Trinitarians) seem to allow Holy Spirit on being par with Yehova. The Bible and the Quran seem to recognise some spirits both Holy, ordinary and subordinate, evil spirits. The 4H Brahma or the Creator God of HIndus may be regarded as the equivalent of the Holy Spirit.



Is Krishna a historical figure?
There is no evidence either documentary or architectural. One of the past Indian Governments made an attempt to prove that Dvaraka, the City of Krishna existed in the Gulf of Kambhat (Combay) in Gujarat. Before that Govt. could succeed, it had to step down.

Are there similarities between Krishna and Jesus?
Similarities
1. Both claimed to be Gods and messiahs.
2. Both were born in odd places. Krishna was born in prison. Jesus was born in a cattle shed.
Differences
1. Krishna did not lay down his life or lose his life on account of his preachings. Jesus died in the hands of his critics. This was because Krishna was a martial hero (warrior). Jesus was not a warrior.
2. Krishna's preachings were in direct speech appearing in Mahabharata. Jesus' preachings in New Testaments are mostly recollections.

Is there nothing in Gita which can inspire people to work for their goals?
Leaders like Mahatma Gandhi, Tilak, Vivekananda said they benefited from Gita. They might have. We have to keep in mind that there can be no absolutely-errorfree-great book or a book only full of faults. Every book contains both. Hence we cannot condemn books or characters. We can only criticise what they preached and the underlying circumstances. Blind imitation, worship or condemnation will be ugly and uncivilised.



SUPERSTITIONS WHICH GITA TRIES TO NURTUREMen get their castes by birth.
Existence of superior castes and inferior castes.
Superior castes have so called 'superior duties' of spiritual learning and penance.
Inferior castes to serve the superior castes. Everybody should do the duty alloted to his caste.
Krishna says that he himself created the Caste system. Arjuna is very keen that Caste System should remain unpolluted. He is afraid that those who injure the Caste System will have to remain in hell for indefinite period. Rebirth. Carry forward of actions (good/bad) and their consequences (good/bad) from birth to birth.


JUSTIFIABILITY OF ARJUNA'S HESITATION TO FIGHT
The Mahabharata war was a family feud between cousins for sharing the kingdom. It was not a war between two countries, involving patriotism and the need to defend the freedom of one's own country. Thus, the duty to fight is not a national duty, but only a personal or more accurately, a family duty particularly towards Draupadi who was insulted in the King's Court.

Pandavas had a grievance that they were defrauded by Duryodhana. Being an injured party, they have a right to fight or not to fight. Arjuna hesitated to fight, when he found that it was necessary to kill relatives lined up on the other side. There was no ignorance in this.

Arjuna unnecessarily discussed the war widows falling to debauchery and the scope of pollution of the Four Caste System; he behaves as if he was commiting a sin. He behaves as if he was the guardian of the Four Caste System.

One can always argue that he was speaking as a socially responsible person. But, not. He never hesitated
to invade countries. He did not hesitate to kill ordinary soldiers during his invasions. They did not provocate him for a war.

Even after the Mahabharata war, when Yudhishthira performed a horse sacrifice, he instructed Arjuna to go on a war path but not to kill the princes who succeeded the slain kings of Kurukshetra. In the course of defending the horse, Arjuna killed hundreds of thousands of ordinary soldiers.

Krishna spoke as if Arjuna was ignorant. Krishna spoke as if Arjuna needed counselling on matters of deliverance philosophy and the Union. Krishna spoke of Action. No Action was called for because there was no invasion from outside.

It appears that Krishna wanted to pretend as a God on the Earth. As a proof, he mesmerised and bewildered Arjuna as if Krishna was showing his Cosmic Form. This might be the intention of the Priests who were spreading the VAISHN`AVA cult or the KRISHNA cult.

BERTRAND RUSSEL ON PATRIOTISM AND KILLING
PATRIORISM is the willingness to kill and be killed for trivial reasons. -- Bertrand Russel

Svadharma (One's own duty) as per Bhagavad Gita for a Kshatriya (Warrior) is to kill or get killed. If he kills, he will enjoy the pleasures of this world. If gets killed, he goes to heaven and get heavenly pleasures.

IS KRISHNA EQUAL TO ALLIS KRISHNA EQUAL TO ALL
One blogsite iskcondk.blogspot.com/2006/12/krishna-is-equal-to-all.html
claims that Krishna is equal to all. They do not allow any comments. Hence, I am writing my comments here.
Krishna claims that he created the four caste system. (
I CREATED THE FOUR CASTES). If Krishna is really equal to all he cannot give special treatment to his devotees. He arbitrarily allots protection of cows, agriculture, and trade to vysyas. He condemns Suudraas to serve the higher castes. paricaryaatmakam karma s`uudrasyaapi svabhaavajam . If God really treats all humans equally, he cannot create divisions. After all, he is God. He is not CEO of a Corporate. This clearly shows that the God himself has been created by the Upper Castes, with favours being shown to them.SRADDHA (pr: s`raddha)
Sraddha has two meanings. 1. Serious Interest coupled with sincerity. 2. Unflinched, unquestioning faith in something.Gita uses the word S`raddha in the second meaning. An entire chapter 17 deals with this type of S`raddha. We should not forget its declaration SAMSAYATMA VINASYATI which means 'A person who doubts the sayings of Gita, gets destroyed or is condemned. This verdict is similar to condemnation of Satan in Christian literature. There is creation of a fear psychosis.



Back to ContentsNAMES USED TO CALL KRISHNA AND ARJUNA NAMEEXPLANATION Bhaarata! BharatarshabhaOh person belonging to "Bharata" clan! The Greatest among the Bharatas Kapidhwaja!Oh warrior having "monkey (Hanuman)" on the flag post of the chariot!Kaunteeya!Oh Son of Kumti!Paartha!Son of Prutha! (Another name for mother Kumti)Paramtapa!Oh annihilator of enemies!Dhanamjaya!Person who has won tremendous wealth in conquests!Vijaya!Oh Great Achiever of Success in battles!Gud`aakees`a!Oh Defeater of Sleep and Sloth!Gaamd`iivi!Oh holder of bow named "Gaamd`iva"!
Names of persons appearing in the GitaSamjaya
Minister of Dhritarashtra, the King.Duryoodhana
Prince. S/o Dhritaraashtra. Duryoodhana's adament refusal to yield even a pin point's area of land to Yudhisht'hira led to the war.Drupada King of Paamcaala Kingdom, fighting for Paamd`avas. Father of Draupadi.Bhiishma, Karn`a, Vikarn`a, Krupa, As`vatthaama,
SamitimjayaBhiishma is the Grand father of Paamd`avas whom Arjuna hesitates to kill. As`vatthaama is Guru Droona's son. Vikarn`a is Prince and S/o Dhritharaasht`ra - hence a brother to Arjuna. Karn`a is King of Anga. All these warriors fought for Kauravas.Dhrusht`akeetu, Uttamaujasva, Vikraamta, Yudhaamanyu, Yuyudhaana Warriors fighting for Paamd`avas.Janaka King of Mithila. Referred to in Karma Yooga,as enlightened by 'Action'.Saubhadra Another name for Abhimanyu. S/o Arjuna.Viraat`a King of Matsya Kingdom, for fighting Paamd`avas.

GLOSSARY and MINI DICTIONARY
A
aadi = beginning;
aadhyaaya = study;
aamaya = ailment, disease
aahava = battle
aaraam = rest;
aap = water;
aas`rita = take shelter;
aavrutam = covered by;
aatma = soul
abhyutthaan = birth and growth;
abraviit = said
agni = fire;
anya = other
aham = I
ahamkaara = the feeling of I (ego)
aja = without birth
akshara = indelible, not destroyed;
ambhasa = water;
amtam = end;
amtah sukhi = person who is happy within;
amtar aaraama = resting within;
amtar jyooti = inner light;
anaamaya = health, robust;
anasuuya = one without envy;
antas = within;
apaan vaayu = wind moving downward in digestive system and expelled through anus.
api = also, despite;
agni = fire
arhati = is entitled to;
arth = money, wealth;
asams'aya = without doubt, hesitation;
asmaakam = us
asn (tv) = eat, get;
asuuya = envy;

B
bahir = outside
bahu, bahuun = many;
baahya = 1. outside 2. exterminated.
bhaya = fear;
bhooga = luxury, enjoy
bhookta = eater, person enjoying;
bhruva = place between two eye brows;
brahma= Four headed Brahma;
brahmam=Supreme Spirit
budha = 1. scholars 2. Planet Mercury.
buddhi = intellect

C
cakshu (n) = eye;
catur = four;
chin (v)= break; disintegrate;
chinna (adj) = broken, disintegrated;
cittam = inner self

D
daana = charity
dambha = hypocrisy;
dagdha = born;
deeham = body;
dharma = ethics, duty, charity, religion (&c);
dosham = defect;
dushkruta = evil deeds;
dvaar = door;
dvaidha = two, double;
dvamdva = dual, double, two;
dvija = twice born (Braahmin caste)
dravya = material; money;
drooha = treachery, disloyalty.

E
eeka = one
ee tat = all that;
eeva = only

F

G
gaccha (itv)= go;
gighra (v) = smell;
Goovimda, Govinda = Krishna;
grihn`a (v) = to receive;
Gud`aak = sleep
Gud`aakees`a= Conquerer of Sleep (Arjuna)
Guhya = secret

H
hamta = assassin, killer
hata = dead
haya = horse;
Hrushiik= sensual organs
Hrushiikees`a = Controller of sensual organs in Creatures(Krishna)

I
iccha (n, v) = kaamksha = desire;
idam = this, that
iham = this world (param = heaven)
Ikshvaaku = a ruling clan;
iva = like;

J
jamtava = animals;
janma = birth;
jayati = wins;
jiiva, jiivit = life
juhva = offer in sacrificial fire;
jyooti (n) = light;
jyooti (v) = to light, to look;

K
kaama = desire, lust
kaamksha = desire;
karma = 1. action 2. Actions of past births and their fruits. 3. Action as prescribed by the caste in which a person is born.
kas`malam =direct, pollutant;
katham = how;
Kees`ava = Krishna
Kees`inii suddana = Krishna (who killed the demoness Keesini)
kiirti =fame;
kim = why
kshara = delible, destroyed;
kshiin`a = falling, fallen; dwindling; dwindled;
kshipram = fast, speedily;
klaibya = impotence; timidness, faintheartedness; cowardice; weakness.
kroodha = anger;
kula dharmaaha = duties allocated to different castes
kula kshayam = deterioration of a caste, castes and the caste system
kula strii = women of (respectable) castes.
kula ghna = one who breaks and violates castes.

L
labdhva = Having got;
labh (v) = to get;
looka = world;

M
maam = me;
maatula = maternal uncle.
Madhusuudana = Krishna (slayer of a demon called 'Madhu')
mai = my;
mama = me, my
mamaka = mine (possessive)
mana = mind
maanasa = minded
mat = my
mayaa = by me;
mooksha = deliverance (particularly from the cycle of birth, death and rebirths)
mrutyu = death
muhur muhur = again and again;
mukta = relieved; delivered; discharged;

N
nara = human, man
nasht`a = loss;
nava = nine, new;
nibaddha = bound; adhering;
nimittam = 1. bad omen; 2. instrument or tool.
nir-agnir = without maintaining sacred fire
nir-doosham = free of defects; free of lapses;
nir-aamaya = cured from disease;
nitya = daily, always

O
ojas = strength

P
paatakam = sin
paraayan`a = person full engaged in a thing; expert;
parampara = succession of generations;
paripamdhi = enemy, wayside robber. pantha = way.
partitraan`a = protect
pasyaami = I see;
patram = leaf;
phala = fruit
praak = 1. before 2. East.
prakruti = Nature;
pralapa (v) = to talk
praapta = get
prabhu(n) = Lord (God);
prahasan = laughing, ridiculing;
Prutha (n)= another name for Kumti, mother of Arjuna and Paamd`avas;
pruthak pruthak = separately;
pruthvi (n) = earth;
pumgava, pungava = the best among, leader.
punar = again;
puraatana = ancient;
puram = town;
purusha = man, super-God
puuta = purified;

Q

R
rahasyam = guhyam = secret;
rama = 1. enjoy 2. love; 3. Goddess of Wealth Lakshmi;
rata(n) = interested person;
raaga = attachment, liking;
raaja = king;
reetas = sperm;
rataa = interested, enjoying a particular thing;
ruc (v)= taste;
rudhira (n) = blood;
rushi (n) = sage;
rushayaha (n)= sages (plural)

S
sa = he;
saadhu = docile, gentle; mendicant;
sadaa = always;
sambhava = happen;
samkalp (v) = propose;
samkalpa = proposal;
sams`aya = doubt, hesitation;
samvaadam = argument, dispute;
samyama = self control;
sams`ayam = doubt;
sangam, samgam = attachment; (original meaning: union);
sarva = all
sat = good
seena = army
s`ariir = body;
siddhi = accomplishment, fulfilment;
sooch = think about, regret about
spars`a = touch;
s`reeya = good, beneficial
s'rii = Goddess Lakshmi, wealth;
srisht` (v) = create;
srootra = hearing;
suhrud = good heart;
sukha = comfort, luxury, happiness
sukhi (n) = happy person;
sva = one's own
svaadhyaa = self study;
svapa (v) = to dream;
svapnam (n) = dream;
s`vasa (v) = to breathe;
s`vas`ura = father-in-law
s`yaala = brother-in-law
syamdan = chariot

T
tadaa = then;
tapa = penance
tasmaat = therefore
tasya = his, her
tat = that
tatvavit = those who know and appreciate the true philosophy and spirit.
titiiksha = endurance, forbearance; tolerance;
tumgam = tall, high
tvak = skin
tyak = relinquish;
U
ubha = two
udapa = water well;
ukta = said;
unmiisha (v) = open eyes;
upaas`rita = take shelter;
uttamam = good;
V
varn`am = color, caste;
Varn`a samkara = pollution of caste. (Not only Krishna and Arjuna, the priests and rulers of those days of were afraid more of caste pollution a cobra.)
vartat = behave;
vayam = we;
vees`ma = residence, home
vibhu = Lord (God);
viddhi = know (2nd person, imperative);
vigata = gone;
viita = shed;
vimda (tv) = enjoy;
vimookshan`a = deliverance;
vinaas`aka = destructive;
vinas`ya = destroy;
vis`ruja (v) = to excrete;
Vishn`u = Krishna's original name before incarnation. One of the trinity Gods.
Vivasvata = The Sun;
vrata = oath;
vyatiit = elapse

W

Y
yadaa = when
yajan (v) = worship, often through ritualistic sacrifices;
yagna = 1. ritualistic sacrifice; 2. any sacred worship;
yasya = whose
yata (tv, n) =controlled; try;
yudhya = fight!
yuga = era, age;

020 INTRODUCTION (Under Revision)





There is no evidence either documentary or architectural. One of the past Indian Governments made an attempt to prove that Dvaraka, the City of Krishna existed in the Gulf of Kambhat (Combay) in Gujarat. Before that Govt. could succeed, it had to step down.












INTRODUCTION AND FAQ
QUESTIONANSWER/EXPLANATION

NEED FOR THIS BOOK

Though there are many books and websites, they aim at propagating the message of the Bhagavad Gita. This blog book aims at an impartial analysis of what Sri Krishna (or the Priests using Krishna and Gita as an instrument) orate(s).

INDEPENDENT BOOK

Bhagavadgita is a part of Mahabharata (Pronounced Mahabhaarata. It is in Bhishma Parva. Gita has all the ingredients of an independent book. Hence, some criticis believe that it was interpolated in Gita.

AUTHOR OF GITA


Veeda Vyaasa, being the author of Mahabharata.
CONTEXT OF GITA IN MAHABHARATA
Pandavas (Pronounced Paamd`avaas) and Kauravas line up their armies for commencing the Mahabharata war.
Arjuna, the middle of the five Pandava brothers is one of the chief warriors on the Pandava side. He asks his charioteer, friend, philosopher and guide Krishna to move the chariot to the forefront of the Kaurava forces, to enable a clear perspective of the warriors on the other side.
When Arjuna saw the knights on the Kaurava side, he found that he was fighting his battles with his cousins, uncles and grandfathers. Unable to foresee a picture of killing all the near and dear whose love he received and cherished in his boyhood, Arjuna wishes to withdraw from the war and retreat to forests. For him the prospects of bloodshed were unbearable and unthinkable.
He prostrates at the feet of Krishna, who at that moment, acted as preceptor and motivator and administered this massive piece of advice of about 714 verses.
BhagavadGita is regarded as a masterpiece of philosophy by thinkers world round; Hindus rever it.
Some verses in Gita (short for BhagavatGita) have considerable merit; some others are mediocre; some others breed superstitions; some others are socially oppressive.
Every attempt is being made here to make an impartial translation and analysis. The object is not word to word translation. The goals are clarity, and the expression of probable intent of the writer in reasonable terms.
NO OF VERSES IN GITA
714. It would have been tedious to orate this on a battle field, at the nick of the moment. Most Sanskrit verses can be sung with or without accompaniment of string/wind instruments and percussion instruments. Even if instruments are not used, there is an element of humming before and at the end of the verse, to sound melodic. More so for a philosopher like Krishna who claims to be God. Assuming that two minutes are used for each verse it takes 1428 minutes to sing or nearly
24 hours. This gives scope to the theory of subsequent interpolations by priests.
Discuss the term 'karma'Karma has four common meanings. 1. The fruits of actions. There are of three types a) Sanchita Karma: accumulated good and bad fruits of actions of past birth. b) agami (pr:praarabdha) karma: Actions from just immediate past birth; c) Agami (pr: Aagaami) Karma: Actions of this birth.
2. karma: Actions. Often rituals like charity, worship, sacrifices, penance etc.
3. karma: One's own duty. This meaning influenced the great Indian leaders like Mahatma Gandhi, Swami Viekananda, and Lokmanya Tilak.
4. karma= One's own duty as prescribed by the four caste structure. Gita uses this meaning. In Gita, God (Krishna or the priests) say: "I created the four castes'. According to Gita, people inherit their behaviour and characteristics from their birth caste. The birth in a particular caste is influenced by the actions of the previous births. A man who did some virtuous deeds in his previous births would be born in higher castes and would inherit the behavior and character of a higher caste person so on and so forth. Since Gita is taught by Brahmins they kept for themselves the top qualities, followed by the kings. Lower down, only slavery and service was left. (In my personal opinion--I shall be subject to correction--by learned readers, Gita is a shame on Indian conscience, at least as far as the caste inheritance and insistence is concerned.)

Yoga (pronounced Yooga)


The word YOGA is born from YUGA i.e. UNION. Its English equivalent is 'yoke'. Farmers use a yoke to tie up two bullocks in tandem for ploughing land and drawing carts. The Union is of the human soul with the Supreme Soul (God). Over a period of time, it extended to different yogic practices which are means of attaining the yoga. Thus physical exercises called 'Aasanas' (sitting postures) have come to be known as yoga in common parleys.
Yoga has other derived meanings like 'a tool'.
In Gita, all the 18 chapters have the suffix yoga. Eg. Arjuna Vishaada Yoga. Here, we cannot apply the meaning of Union of Arjuna's grief. Contextually, in Gita, Yoga means a mental State. The mental State may be of Grief or Action (Karma Yooga), Gnaana Yooga (Mental State of having Known).
In Chapter 2 Verse No. INTELLECT 48 , Krishna defined more Yoga clearly. It has three ingredients: 1. Abandon the idea of being a doer 2. Abandon the idea of being receiver of results 3. Equanimity and unperturbedness both to successes and failures.
Discuss the term 'Brahma' or BrahmamThe term Brahma has two contextual meanings:
1. Brahma=Four headed creator. (4H Brahma).
2. Brahmam= 'Supreme Spirit pervading the Universe. Infinite. Birthless, Deathless'. The essense of Bhagavad Gita is: Everybody should try to yoke 'his living soul' with the 'supreme spirit'. At the end (death), the living soul leaves the body and gets absorbed into the supreme spirit. This is Deliverance (Moksha). Benefit: Freedom from the cycle of rebirths and the threat of entering lowly animal and insect bodies.
Originally Brahma and Brahmam were same. During the advent of 'Vishnu' as Supreme Spirit, a separate creator Brahma (Padmabhava) was made out from a lotus born from the naval umbellical chord of Vishnu (Padmanabha). Brahma became son of Vishnu. Brahma is a part of trinity and should have been ranked equal to Vishnu. Shiva (the Destroyer God) -the third member of the Trinity was said to have cut the fifth head of Brahma to tame him down. Brahma since then is believed to have only four heads (caturmukha). In the four caste system, Brahmins were originally worshipping the Supreme Spirit initially (Brahmam and Brahma as same). Kshatriyas (Rulers) were worshipping Lord Vishnu. In a struggle for superiority between Brahmins and the Rulers, the Kings gained an upper hand. Brahma was relegated down to be an inferior God, ruling the inferior world called 'Satya Loka'. Brahma was driven out of temples and denied of regular worship.
Priests compiled and explained Mahabharata inlcuding Gita, Maha Bhagavata, in temples at the instance of Mid-West Indian KIngs who claimed to be descendents of Krishna and Pandavas. They presented Krishna as the incarnation of Vishnu and elevated him to Brahmam (the Supreme Spirit). In Bhagavata, the 4H Brahma was humiliated for trying to compete with Krishna. According to some scriptures, 4H Brahma has an end at the end of his fixed life. (?). According to some other books, 4H Brahma is a post with changing incumbancies.
Bhagavad Gita is concerned with the Supreme Spirit and Krishna being the same.

Can we compare the Gita's Supreme Spirit to Yehova (Yehwe=Eternal)? -- We may do because Gita argues that the Supreme Spirit is eternal.


I examined whether the Supreme Spirit can be compared to the Holy Spirit of the Christian Trinity and the Noble Quran. It appears that Bible does not recognise the Holy Spirit and the concept of Trinity. Only a sect of the Christians (Trinitarians) seem to allow Holy Spirit on being par with Yehova. The Bible and the Quran seem to recognise some spirits both Holy, ordinary and subordinate, evil spirits. The 4H Brahma or the Creator God of HIndus may be regarded as the equivalent of the Holy Spirit.

Is Krishna a historical figure?


Are there similarities between Krishna and Jesus?

Similarities

1. Both claimed to be Gods and messiahs.
2. Both were born in odd places. Krishna was born in prison. Jesus was born in a cattle shed.
Differences

1. Krishna did not lay down his life or lose his life on account of his preachings. Jesus died in the hands of his critics. This was because Krishna was a martial hero (warrior). Jesus was not a warrior.
2. Krishna's preachings were in direct speech appearing in Mahabharata. Jesus' preachings in New Testaments are mostly recollections.

Is there nothing in Gita which can inspire people to work for their goals?

Leaders like Mahatma Gandhi, Tilak, Vivekananda said they benefited from Gita. They might have. We have to keep in mind that there can be no absolutely-errorfree-great book or a book only full of faults. Every book contains both. Hence we cannot condemn books or characters. We can only criticise what they preached and the underlying circumstances. Blind imitation, worship or condemnation will be ugly and uncivilised.

SUPERSTITIONS WHICH GITA TRIES TO NURTURE

Men get their castes by birth.
Existence of superior castes and inferior castes.
Superior castes have so called 'superior duties' of spiritual learning and penance.
Inferior castes to serve the superior castes. Everybody should do the duty alloted to his caste.
Krishna says that he himself created the Caste system. Arjuna is very keen that Caste System should remain unpolluted. He is afraid that those who injure the Caste System will have to remain in hell for indefinite period. Rebirth. Carry forward of actions (good/bad) and their consequences (good/bad) from birth to birth.

JUSTIFIABILITY OF ARJUNA'S HESITATION TO FIGHT


The Mahabharata war was a family feud between cousins for sharing the kingdom. It was not a war between two countries, involving patriotism and the need to defend the freedom of one's own country. Thus, the duty to fight is not a national duty, but only a personal or more accurately, a family duty particularly towards Draupadi who was insulted in the King's Court.

Pandavas had a grievance that they were defrauded by Duryodhana. Being an injured party, they have a right to fight or not to fight. Arjuna hesitated to fight, when he found that it was necessary to kill relatives lined up on the other side. There was no ignorance in this.

Arjuna unnecessarily discussed the war widows falling to debauchery and the scope of pollution of the Four Caste System; he behaves as if he was commiting a sin. He behaves as if he was the guardian of the Four Caste System.

One can always argue that he was speaking as a socially responsible person. But, not. He never hesitated
to invade countries. He did not hesitate to kill ordinary soldiers during his invasions. They did not provocate him for a war.

Even after the Mahabharata war, when Yudhishthira performed a horse sacrifice, he instructed Arjuna to go on a war path but not to kill the princes who succeeded the slain kings of Kurukshetra. In the course of defending the horse, Arjuna killed hundreds of thousands of ordinary soldiers.

Krishna spoke as if Arjuna was ignorant. Krishna spoke as if Arjuna needed counselling on matters of deliverance philosophy and the Union. Krishna spoke of Action. No Action was called for because there was no invasion from outside.

It appears that Krishna wanted to pretend as a God on the Earth. As a proof, he mesmerised and bewildered Arjuna as if Krishna was showing his Cosmic Form. This might be the intention of the Priests who were spreading the VAISHN`AVA cult or the KRISHNA cult.

PATRIORISM is the willingness to kill and be killed for trivial reasons. -- Bertrand Russel

Svadharma (One's own duty) as per Bhagavad Gita for a Kshatriya (Warrior) is to kill or get killed. If he kills, he will enjoy the pleasures of this world. If gets killed, he goes to heaven and get heavenly pleasures.


IS KRISHNA EQUAL TO ALL
One blogsite iskcondk.blogspot.com/2006/12/krishna-is-equal-to-all.html
claims that Krishna is equal to all. They do not allow any comments. Hence, I am writing my comments here.
Krishna claims that he created the four caste system. (
I CREATED THE FOUR CASTES). If Krishna is really equal to all he cannot give special treatment to his devotees. He arbitrarily allots protection of cows, agriculture, and trade to vysyas. He condemns Suudraas to serve the higher castes. paricaryaatmakam karma s`uudrasyaapi svabhaavajam . If God really treats all humans equally, he cannot create divisions. After all, he is God. He is not CEO of a Corporate. This clearly shows that the God himself has been created by the Upper Castes, with favours being shown to them.
SRADDHA (pr: s`raddha)
Sraddha has two meanings. 1. Serious Interest coupled with sincerity. 2. Unflinched, unquestioning faith in something.
Gita uses the word S`raddha in the second meaning. An entire chapter 17 deals with this type of S`raddha. We should not forget its declaration SAMSAYATMA VINASYATI which means 'A person who doubts the sayings of Gita, gets destroyed or is condemned. This verdict is similar to condemnation of Satan in Christian literature. There is creation of a fear psychosis.



Back to ContentsNAMES USED TO CALL KRISHNA AND ARJUNA
NAMEEXPLANATION
Bhaarata! BharatarshabhaOh person belonging to "Bharata" clan! The Greatest among the Bharatas
Kapidhwaja!Oh warrior having "monkey (Hanuman)" on the flag post of the chariot!
Kaunteeya!Oh Son of Kumti!
Paartha!Son of Prutha! (Another name for mother Kumti)
Paramtapa!Oh annihilator of enemies!
Dhanamjaya!Person who has won tremendous wealth in conquests!
Vijaya!Oh Great Achiever of Success in battles!
Gud`aakees`a!Oh Defeater of Sleep and Sloth!
Gaamd`iivi!Oh holder of bow named "Gaamd`iva"!

Names of persons appearing in the Gita
Samjaya
Minister of Dhritarashtra, the King.
Duryoodhana
Prince. S/o Dhritaraashtra. Duryoodhana's adament refusal to yield even a pin point's area of land to Yudhisht'hira led to the war.
Drupada King of Paamcaala Kingdom, fighting for Paamd`avas. Father of Draupadi.
Bhiishma, Karn`a, Vikarn`a, Krupa, As`vatthaama,
Samitimjaya
Bhiishma is the Grand father of Paamd`avas whom Arjuna hesitates to kill. As`vatthaama is Guru Droona's son. Vikarn`a is Prince and S/o Dhritharaasht`ra - hence a brother to Arjuna. Karn`a is King of Anga. All these warriors fought for Kauravas.
Dhrusht`akeetu, Uttamaujasva, Vikraamta, Yudhaamanyu, Yuyudhaana Warriors fighting for Paamd`avas.
Janaka King of Mithila. Referred to in Karma Yooga,as enlightened by 'Action'.
Saubhadra Another name for Abhimanyu. S/o Arjuna.
Viraat`a King of Matsya Kingdom, for fighting Paamd`avas.


GLOSSARY and MINI DICTIONARY

A
aadi = beginning;
aadhyaaya = study;
aamaya = ailment, disease
aahava = battle
aaraam = rest;
aap = water;
aas`rita = take shelter;
aavrutam = covered by;
aatma = soul
abhyutthaan = birth and growth;
abraviit = said
agni = fire;
anya = other
aham = I
ahamkaara = the feeling of I (ego)
aja = without birth
akshara = indelible, not destroyed;
ambhasa = water;
amtam = end;
amtah sukhi = person who is happy within;
amtar aaraama = resting within;
amtar jyooti = inner light;
anaamaya = health, robust;
anasuuya = one without envy;
antas = within;
apaan vaayu = wind moving downward in digestive system and expelled through anus.
api = also, despite;
agni = fire
arhati = is entitled to;
arth = money, wealth;
asams'aya = without doubt, hesitation;
asmaakam = us
asn (tv) = eat, get;
asuuya = envy;

B
bahir = outside
bahu, bahuun = many;
baahya = 1. outside 2. exterminated.
bhaya = fear;
bhooga = luxury, enjoy
bhookta = eater, person enjoying;
bhruva = place between two eye brows;
brahma= Four headed Brahma;
brahmam=Supreme Spirit
budha = 1. scholars 2. Planet Mercury.
buddhi = intellect

C
cakshu (n) = eye;
catur = four;
chin (v)= break; disintegrate;
chinna (adj) = broken, disintegrated;
cittam = inner self

D
daana = charity
dambha = hypocrisy;
dagdha = born;
deeham = body;
dharma = ethics, duty, charity, religion (&c);
dosham = defect;
dushkruta = evil deeds;
dvaar = door;
dvaidha = two, double;
dvamdva = dual, double, two;
dvija = twice born (Braahmin caste)
dravya = material; money;
drooha = treachery, disloyalty.

E
eeka = one
ee tat = all that;
eeva = only

F

G
gaccha (itv)= go;
gighra (v) = smell;
Goovimda, Govinda = Krishna;
grihn`a (v) = to receive;
Gud`aak = sleep
Gud`aakees`a= Conquerer of Sleep (Arjuna)
Guhya = secret

H
hamta = assassin, killer
hata = dead
haya = horse;
Hrushiik= sensual organs
Hrushiikees`a = Controller of sensual organs in Creatures(Krishna)

I
iccha (n, v) = kaamksha = desire;
idam = this, that
iham = this world (param = heaven)
Ikshvaaku = a ruling clan;
iva = like;

J
jamtava = animals;
janma = birth;
jayati = wins;
jiiva, jiivit = life
juhva = offer in sacrificial fire;
jyooti (n) = light;
jyooti (v) = to light, to look;

K
kaama = desire, lust
kaamksha = desire;
karma = 1. action 2. Actions of past births and their fruits. 3. Action as prescribed by the caste in which a person is born.
kas`malam =direct, pollutant;
katham = how;
Kees`ava = Krishna
Kees`inii suddana = Krishna (who killed the demoness Keesini)
kiirti =fame;
kim = why
kshara = delible, destroyed;
kshiin`a = falling, fallen; dwindling; dwindled;
kshipram = fast, speedily;
klaibya = impotence; timidness, faintheartedness; cowardice; weakness.
kroodha = anger;
kula dharmaaha = duties allocated to different castes
kula kshayam = deterioration of a caste, castes and the caste system
kula strii = women of (respectable) castes.
kula ghna = one who breaks and violates castes.

L
labdhva = Having got;
labh (v) = to get;
looka = world;

M
maam = me;
maatula = maternal uncle.
Madhusuudana = Krishna (slayer of a demon called 'Madhu')
mai = my;
mama = me, my
mamaka = mine (possessive)
mana = mind
maanasa = minded
mat = my
mayaa = by me;
mooksha = deliverance (particularly from the cycle of birth, death and rebirths)
mrutyu = death
muhur muhur = again and again;
mukta = relieved; delivered; discharged;

N
nara = human, man
nasht`a = loss;
nava = nine, new;
nibaddha = bound; adhering;
nimittam = 1. bad omen; 2. instrument or tool.
nir-agnir = without maintaining sacred fire
nir-doosham = free of defects; free of lapses;
nir-aamaya = cured from disease;
nitya = daily, always

O
ojas = strength

P
paatakam = sin
paraayan`a = person full engaged in a thing; expert;
parampara = succession of generations;
paripamdhi = enemy, wayside robber. pantha = way.
partitraan`a = protect
pasyaami = I see;
patram = leaf;
phala = fruit
praak = 1. before 2. East.
prakruti = Nature;
pralapa (v) = to talk
praapta = get
prabhu(n) = Lord (God);
prahasan = laughing, ridiculing;
Prutha (n)= another name for Kumti, mother of Arjuna and Paamd`avas;
pruthak pruthak = separately;
pruthvi (n) = earth;
pumgava, pungava = the best among, leader.
punar = again;
puraatana = ancient;
puram = town;
purusha = man, super-God
puuta = purified;

Q

R
rahasyam = guhyam = secret;
rama = 1. enjoy 2. love; 3. Goddess of Wealth Lakshmi;
rata(n) = interested person;
raaga = attachment, liking;
raaja = king;
reetas = sperm;
rataa = interested, enjoying a particular thing;
ruc (v)= taste;
rudhira (n) = blood;
rushi (n) = sage;
rushayaha (n)= sages (plural)

S
sa = he;
saadhu = docile, gentle; mendicant;
sadaa = always;
sambhava = happen;
samkalp (v) = propose;
samkalpa = proposal;
sams`aya = doubt, hesitation;
samvaadam = argument, dispute;
samyama = self control;
sams`ayam = doubt;
sangam, samgam = attachment; (original meaning: union);
sarva = all
sat = good
seena = army
s`ariir = body;
siddhi = accomplishment, fulfilment;
sooch = think about, regret about
spars`a = touch;
s`reeya = good, beneficial
s'rii = Goddess Lakshmi, wealth;
srisht` (v) = create;
srootra = hearing;
suhrud = good heart;
sukha = comfort, luxury, happiness
sukhi (n) = happy person;
sva = one's own
svaadhyaa = self study;
svapa (v) = to dream;
svapnam (n) = dream;
s`vasa (v) = to breathe;
s`vas`ura = father-in-law
s`yaala = brother-in-law
syamdan = chariot

T
tadaa = then;
tapa = penance
tasmaat = therefore
tasya = his, her
tat = that
tatvavit = those who know and appreciate the true philosophy and spirit.
titiiksha = endurance, forbearance; tolerance;
tumgam = tall, high
tvak = skin
tyak = relinquish;
U
ubha = two
udapa = water well;
ukta = said;
unmiisha (v) = open eyes;
upaas`rita = take shelter;
uttamam = good;
V
varn`am = color, caste;
Varn`a samkara = pollution of caste. (Not only Krishna and Arjuna, the priests and rulers of those days of were afraid more of caste pollution a cobra.)
vartat = behave;
vayam = we;
vees`ma = residence, home
vibhu = Lord (God);
viddhi = know (2nd person, imperative);
vigata = gone;
viita = shed;
vimda (tv) = enjoy;
vimookshan`a = deliverance;
vinaas`aka = destructive;
vinas`ya = destroy;
vis`ruja (v) = to excrete;
Vishn`u = Krishna's original name before incarnation. One of the trinity Gods.
Vivasvata = The Sun;
vrata = oath;
vyatiit = elapse

W

Y
yadaa = when
yajan (v) = worship, often through ritualistic sacrifices;
yagna = 1. ritualistic sacrifice; 2. any sacred worship;
yasya = whose
yata (tv, n) =controlled; try;
yudhya = fight!
yuga = era, age;


Sunday, July 29, 2007

019 SUMMARY OF CHAPTERS IN BHAGAVAD GITA

SUMMARY OF CHAPTERS
1. Arjuna Vishaada YoogaARJUNA'S GRIEF Arjuna expresses his unwillingness to kill Dhartarasht`ras though they harmed him.
2. SANKHYAYOGA TRANSCENDENTAL UNIONSpirit of Life changes bodies like clothes.
3. Karma Yooga ACTIONDischarge prescribed duties without demor.
4. Gnaana YoogaKNOWLEDGEKrishna orates and praises himself.
5. Karma Sanyas YoogaRENUNCIATION OF ACTIONKrishna continues to praise himself. He insists on prescribed duties. BODY ORIENTED SENSATION
6. Aatma Samyama YoogaSELF CONTROLStress on self-regulation and balance of mind.Voracious Eater
7. Vignaana Yooga SUPER KNOWLEDGEKrishna orates and indulges in self praise.
8. Akshara Parabrahma Yooga INDELIBLE SUPER SPIRITI am Supreme!
9. Raaja Vidya Raaja Guhya Yooga SUPREME ART AND SUPREME SECRETWorship me!
10.Vibhuuti Yooga
FORMS AND ATTRIBUTES OF THE SUPREME SPIRIT
Krishna explains his attributes. He lists out some physical and absolute attributes and selects the best as his own.
11.Vis`va Ruupa Samdars`ana Yooga
VISION OF THE SUPREME SPIRITKrishna shows his cosmic and universal form, in a gigantic figure. May be with intent to mesmerise Arjuna into surrender. Arjuna surrenders.
12.Bhakti YoogaPATH OF DEVOTIONKrishna preaches: Be my devotee. Practise meditating on me.e is dear to me
13.Ksheetra Ksheetragna Vibhaaga YoogaFIELD AND ITS RESIDENTBody is the field. Spirit is the resident.
14.Gunatraya Vibhaaga Yooga THREE ATTRIBUTE QUALIFICATIONKrishna (Priests) classifies humans into three categories with three qualities. 1. Satva (Capable, forbearing). 2. Rajoo (kingly, lustful, irritable) . 3. Tamoo (ignorant, inactive).
15.Purushoottama Praapti YoogaATTAINMENT OF THE SUPREME SPIRITHow the Human Soul attains the Supreme Spirit.
16.Deeva asura Sampad Vibhaaga Yooga
GODLY AND DEVILISH POSSESSIONSDelineation and classification of possessions and qualities into "Divine" and "Satanic".
17.S`raddhaa traya Vibhaaga Yooga THREE DISPOSITION DELINEATIONTrifurcated classification of human endeavours and interests. Satvic Food
Rajasic Food
Tamasic Food
18.Mooksha Sanyasa Yooga
DELIVERANCE AND RENUNCIATION
Krishna explains the link between renunciation of fruits of actions and the deliverance.