1. ARJUNA VISHAADA YOOGA
VERSES AV 1 TO AV 19
maamakaa: paamd`avaas` ca iva
kim akurvata samjaya
drusht`vaa tu paamd`avaaniikam
vyuud`ham duryoodhanas tadaa
raajaa vachanam abraviit
aachaarya mahatiim ca muum
tava s`ishyeen`a dhiimataa
atra s`uuraa maheeshvaasaa
bhiima arjunasamaa yudhi
yuyudhaanoo viraat`as` ca
drupadas` ca mahaaratha:
kaas`iraajas` ca viiryavaan
purujit kumtibhoojas` ca
s`aibyas` ca narapumgava:
yudhaamanyus` ca vikraamta uttamaujaas` ca viiryavaan
saubhadroo draupadeeyaas` ca sarva eeva mahaarathaa:
asmaakam tu vis`isht`aa yee taan niboodha dvijoottama
naayakaa mama sainyasya samgna artham taan braviimi tee
bhavaan bhiishmas` ca karn`as` ca krupas` ca samitimjaya:
as`vatthaamaa vikarn`as` ca saumadattis tathaiva ca
anyee ca bahava: s`uuraa madarthee tyaktajiivitaa:
naanaa s`astra praharan`aa: sarvee yuddhavis`aaradaa:
aparyaaptam tad asmaakam balam bhiishma abhirakshitam
paryaaptam tv idam eeteeshaam balam bhiima abhirakshitam
ayaneeshu ca sarveeshu yathaabhaagam avasthitaa:
bhiishmam eeva abhirakshamtu bhavamta: sarva eeva hi
tasya samjanayan harsham kuruvruddha: pitaamaha:
simha naadam vinadyoochchai: s`amkham dadhmau prataapavaan
tata: s`amkhaas` ca bheeryas` ca pan`avaanaka goomukhaa:
sahasaiva abhyahanyamta sa s`abdas tumuloo abhavat
tata: s`veetair hayair yuktee mahati syandanee sthitau
maadhava: paamd`avas` ca iva divyau s`amkhau pradadhmatu:
paumd`ram dadhmau mahaas`amkham
bhiima karmaa vrukoodara:
anamtavijayam raajaa kumtiiputroo yudhisht`hira:
nakula: sahadeevas` ca sughoosha man`ipushpakau
kaas`yas` ca parameeshvaasa: s`ikhamd`ii ca mahaaratha:
dhrusht`adyumnoo viraat`as` ca saatyakis` ca aparaajita:
drupadoo draupadeeyaas` ca sarvas`a: pruthiviipatee
saubhadras` ca mahaabaahu: s`amkhaan dadhmu: pruthak pruthak
sa ghooshoo dhaartaraasht`raan`aam hrudayaani vyadaarayat
nabhas` ca pruthiviim ca iva tumuloo vyanunaadayan
atha vyavasthitaan drusht`vaa dhaartaraasht`raan kapidhvaja:
pravruttee s`astrasampaatee dhanur udyamya paamd`ava:
hrushiikees`am tadaa vaakyam idam aaha mahiipatee
seenayoor ubhayoor madhyee ratham sthaapaya mee achyuta
yaavad eetaan niriikshee aham yooddhukaamaan avasthitaan
kair mayaa saha yooddhavyam asmin ran`asamudyamee
yootsyamaanaan aveekshee aham ya eetee atra samaagataa:
dhaartaraasht`rasya durbuddheer yuddhee priyachikiirshava:
eevam uktoo hrushiikees`oo gud`aakees`eena bhaarata
seenayoor ubhayoor madhyee sthaapaiitvaa rathoottamam
bhiishma droon`apramukhata: sarveeshaam ca mahiikshitaam
uvaacha paartha pas`yaitaan samaveetaan kuruun iti
tatraapas`yat sthitaan paartha: pitruun atha pitaamahaan
aachaaryaan maatulaan bhraatruun putraan pautraan sakhiims tathaa
s`vas`uraan suhrudas` ca iva seena yoor ubha yoor api
taan samiikshya sa kaumteeya: sarvaan bandhuun avasthitaan
krupayaa parayaavisht`oo vishiidann idam abraviit
drusht`veemaan svajanaan krushn`a yuyutsuun samavasthitaan
The book and this chapter opens with the King Dhrutarashtra seeking information from his Minister Sanjaya about the sequence of events taking place at the battle field.
Dhrutarashtra: 'In the sacred field of Kuruksheetra, the war enthusiastic sons of mine and the Pandavas met one another. What are they doing?' (DILEMMA 1).
Sanjaya: 'Duryoodhana saw the Pandava army arraigned. He went to Droon`a and spoke.' (DILEMMA 2)
Duryoodhana: 'Pl. see the armes of Pandavas arraigned by the intellegent Dhrusht`adyumna-- your disciple and the Son of Drupada. (DILEMMA 3). Here are warriors and archers equal to Bhiima and Arjuna. Here are the chivalorous Saatyaki, Virat`a, Drupada who are great fighters. (DILEMMA 4). Dhrusht`akeetu, Cheekitaana, Purujit, Kumtii Bhooja, Vikraanta, Uttamauja, Abhimanyu, Sons of Draupadi are all great warriors. (DILEMMA 5, DILEMMA 6).
Oh! the best of the Brahmins (praise for Droon`a)! For your information, I am explaining the details of reputed warriors on our side. (DILEMMA 7). Yourself, Bhiishma, Karn`a, Krupa, Samitimjaya, Aswatthaama, Vikarn`a, Somadatta's son Bhuuris`ravas, Jayadratha. (DILEMMA 8). There are many other warriors who have dedicated their lives to me. All of them are adept in fighting and using all sorts of weapons. (DILEMMA 9). Our army protected by Bhiishma is not well spread. Their army protected by Bhiima is well spread. ( DILEMMA 10). Hence, all of you will please stay at the designated locations and protect Bhiishma by all means ( DILEMMA 11).'
(DILEMMA uryoodhana's call to Droon`a ends. Samjaya continues his narration.)
To inspire and delight Duryoodhana, Bhiishma roared like a lion and blew his conch called 'Dadhma'. (DILEMMA 12).
Thereafter, conches, drums, horns and percussion instruments were blown simultaneously. The sounds mixed up and caused a bizarre scene. (DILEMMA 13).
Then Krishna and Arjuna mounted on a chariot drawn by white horses blew their divine conches. (DILEMMA 14).
The Pandava warriors blew their conches separately. This verse lists out the names of the conches and the warriors.
Pamca janya -- Krishna;
Devadattam -- Arjuna;
Paund`ram -- Bhiima; (DILEMMA 15).
Ananta Vijayam -- Yudhisht`hira;
Sughoosha -- Nakula;
Mani Pushpaka -- Sahadeeva.
The king of Kaas`i, Sikhand`i, Dhrusht`adyumna, Viraat`a, Saatyaki, Drupada, Sons of Draupadi, Abhimanyu (Son of Subhadra and Arjuna , sister of Krishna), blew their conches separately. (DILEMMA 17 and D 18).
This sound broke the hearts of the Sons of Dhrutaraasht`ra. The sound reverberated both on the Earth and the sky. (DILEMMA 19)
(The poet indulges in praise of Pandavas and belittles Kauravas at his whims. This gives an impression that he was commissioned by the descendents of Pandavas to praise their ancestry, rather than narrate what actually happened.)
Now is the time, to commence the war. Arjuna, having seen the Kauravas thus arraigned, said to Krishna (follows):- (DILEMMA 20)
'Krishna, pl. place the chariot in the midst of both the forces.' (DILEMMA 21). I shall like to inspect those present here desiring to fight and with whom I have to wage my battles.(DILEMMA 22); -- those who have arrived here to please the evil minded sons of Dhrutaraashtra.' (DILEMMA 23)
(Samjaya narrates to Dhrutaraasht`ra): As asked by Arjuna, Krishna placed the chariot amidst the two factions. (DILEMMA 24)
The chariot is facing Bhiishma, Droon`a and all the kings present.
Krishna to Arjuna: 'See the Kauravas'. (DILEMMA 25)
Then Arjuna saw:
warriors equal to his father (eg. aged Bhuuris`ravas);
grand father (Bhiishma);
teachers (Droon`a, Krupa)
uncles (S`akuni etc.)
brothers (Duryoodhana etc.);
Sons (sons of Duryoodhana and his brothers);
grandsons (grandsons of Duryodhana and his brothers);
friends (Asvatthaama etc.);
well wishers (Kruta Varma etc.). (DILEMMA 26).
Arjuna, having seen all the assembled relations, turned grave and said with a grimace of sorrow:-- (DILEMMA 27).
(This set of 27 verses depicts the preparatory scene for the battle. The words of Arjuna that follow are meaningful. The priests and Krishna consider his words are born out of temptation and timidness as can be seen from the Krishna's discourse that occupies this entire book..)
siidamti mama gaatraan`i
mukham ca paris`ushyati
veepathus` ca s`ariiree mee
roomaharshas` ca jaayatee
gaamd`iivam sramsatee hastaat
tvak ca iva paridahyatee
na ca s`aknoomi avasthaatum
bhramatiiva ca mee mana:
nimittaani ca pas`yaami vipariitaani kees`ava
na ca s`reeyoo anupas`yaami hatvaa svajanam aahavee
na kaamkshee vijayam krushn`a
na ca raajyam sukhaani ca
kim noo raajyeena goovimda
kim bhoogair jiiviteena vaa
yeeshaam arthee kaamkshitam noo raajyam bhoogaa: sukhaani ca
ta imee avasthitaa yuddhee praan`aam tyaktvaa dhanaani ca
aachaaryaa: pitara: putraas tathaiva ca pitaamahaa:
maatulaa: s`vas`uraa: pautraa: syaalaa: sambandhinas tathaa
eetaan na hamtum ichchhaami ghnatoo api madhusuudana
api trailookya raajyasya heetoo: kim nu mahiikrutee
nihatya dhaarta raasht`raan na: kaa priiti: syaaj janaardana
paapam eevaas`rayeed asmaan hatvaitaan aatataaiina:
tasmaan naarhaa vayam hamtum dhaarta raasht`raan sabaandhavaan
svajanam hi katham hatvaa sukhina: syaama maadhava
yadi api eetee na pas`yamti loobha upahata cheetasa:
kula kshayakrutam doosham mitra droohee ca paatakam
katham na gneeyam asmaabhi: paapaad asmaan nivartitum
kulakshayakrutam doosham prapas`yadbhir janaardana
kula kshayee pran`as`yamti kula dharmaa: sanaatanaa:
dharmee nasht`ee kulam krutsnam adharmoo abhibhavati uta
Adharma abhibhavaat krushn`a pradushyamti kula striya:
striishu dusht`aasu vaarshn`eeya jaayatee varn`asamkara:
samkaroo narakaayaiva kula ghnaanaam kulasya ca
patamti pitaroo hi eeshaam luptapimd`oodakakriyaa:
dooshair eetai: kula ghnaanaam varn`asamkarakaarakai:
utsaadyamtee jaatidharmaa: kula dharmaas` ca s`aas`vataa:
utsannakula dharmaan`aam manushyaan`aam janaardana
narakee niyatam vaasoo bhavatiiti anus`us`ruma
ahoo bata mahat paapam kartum vyavasitaa vayam
yad raajyasukhaloobheena hamtum svajanam udyataa:
yadi maam apratiikaaram as`astram s`astrapaan`aya:
dhaartaraasht`raa ran`ee hanyus tan mee ksheemataram bhaveet
eevam uktva arjuna: samkhyee rathoopastha upaavis`at
visrujya sas`aram ca apam s`ooka samvigna maanasa:
Arjuna: 'When I see all the relatives who have assembled here eager to fight, my voice is soaking and mouth is drying up (Dilemma 28). My body is shivering. My hair is stiffening. Bow is shaking in my hands. Skin is burning (Dilemma 29). I am unable to stand erect and stable. My mind is rotating. I see ill omens (Dilemma 30). I see no good in killing own people. I do not desire success or kingdom or comforts (Dilemma 31).
What for are the kingdom, luxuries in life? For whose sake we crave kingdom, luxuries and comforts, they are all here to wage the war and lose their wealth and lives. (The poet gives a list of such persons: teachers, fathers, sons, grandfathers, uncles, in-laws, grandsons, brothers-in-law, all relatives). Even if they kill us, I do not wish to take away their lives (Dilemma 32, D 33, D 34). Even for the sake of controlling all the three worlds, I shall not kill them. By killing my own men, what pleasure can I get? (Dilemma 35).
By killing these sinners, we also get sin. Hence we are not fit to kill the sons of Dhrutaarashtra, with their relatives. By killing our own people, how can we remain happy? (Dilemma 36). They are unable to see the sins arising from causing destruction of one's own clan and the treachery to one's own friends. They are enamored by the covetousness for kingdom. (Dilemma 37). We know and recognise the sin arising from the destruction of the clan. Should we not avert it? (Dilemma 38).
When a clan perishes, the righteousness dies. Immorality rises. (Dilemma 39). When a clan is engulfed by immorality, pious women get debauched. When women lose their character, there will be a pollution of castes. (Dilemma 40). Pollution of the castes will condemn both the clan-destroyers and the clan itself to hell. Forefathers will also be condemned, if there is nobody to perform ablutions for them. (Dilemma 41). Because of the sins committed by the clan-destroyers, the ancient national character and ethics, the castes' character and ethics are endangered. (Dilemma 42).
I hear that the destroyers of caste duties will have to reside in hell for infinite time. (Dilemma 43).
(Now, Arjuna laments: Alas! Alas!) What a sin we are determined to commit! Just by our covetousness for kingdom and luxuries, we are ready to kill our own people. (Dilemma 44).
As I do not retaliate, even if the sons of Dhrutarashtra kill me in the battle, it will do better for me. (Dilemma 45).'
Having said thus, the sad Arjuna abandoned his bows and arrows, and sat in the chariot. (Dilemma 46).